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1968–Martin Luther King, Jr. is shot and killed on the balcony of a hotel in Memphis, Tennessee, at age 39. Riots break out in 30 American cities, leaving 39 people dead. James Brown goes on national television to urge restraint and a constructive channeling of anger. In New York, Jimi Hendrix, B.B. King, and Buddy Guy play an all-night tribute to the slain leader.

BC 503–Roman consul, Agrippa Menenius Lanatus, celebrates a triumph for a military victory over the Sabines.

188–Roman Emperor, Caracalla, is born Lucius Septimius Bassianus in Lugdunum, Gaul (present-day Lyon, France). He is remembered as one of the most notorious and unpleasant of Emperors, due the massacres and persecutions he authorized and instigated throughout the Empire.

896–Pope Formosus dies in Rome, Papal States, at age 80.

1147–The first historical record of Moscow is made.

1284–Alfonso X of Castile dies in Seville, Spain, at age 62.

1287–King Wareru founds the Ramanya Kingdom, and proclaims independence from the Pagan Kingdom.

1292–Pope Nicholas IV dies in Rome, Papal States, at age 64.

1406–Robert III of Scotland dies at Dundonald Castle in Ayrshire, Scotland, at age 68.

1460–The University of Basel is founded Basel, Switzerland. It is the country’s oldest university.

1503–Hindu Saint, Annamacharya, dies in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India, at age 95. He is the earliest known Indian musician to compose songs called “sankirtanas” in praise of the god Venkateswara, a form of Vishnu.

1536–Frederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, dies in Ansbach, in the German state of Bavaria, at age 75.

1581–Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Queen Elizabeth I.

1588–Frederick II of Denmark dies of pneumonia at Antvorskov Castle in Antvorskov, Denmark, at age 53.

1596–Philip II, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, dies at Herzberg Castle in the state of Lower Saxony, at age 62.

1660–Declaration of Breda by King Charles II of England.

1721–Sir Robert Walpole becomes the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom under King George I.

1768–Philip Astley stages the first modern circus in London, England.

1796–Georges Cuvier delivers his first paleontological lecture at École Centrale du Pantheon of the National Museum of Natural History on living and fossil remains of elephants and related species, founding the science of Paleontology.

1812–President James Madison enacts a 90-day embargo on trade with the United Kingdom.

1814–Napoleon abdicates for the first time and names his son, Napoleon II, as Emperor of the French.

1818–The U.S. Congress adopts a flag with 13 red and white stripes and one star for each of its 20 states.

1819–Maria II of Portugal is born Maria da Glória Joana Carlota Leopoldina da Cruz Francisca Xavier de Paula Isidora Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga at Palace of São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

1821–Engineer and businessman, Linus Yale, Jr., is born in Salisbury, New York. He was the inventor of the cylinder pin-tumbler lock and founder of Yale Lock Company. His basic lock design is still widely distributed in today’s society, and constitute a majority of personal locks and safes.

1826–Znobe Theophile Gramme, inventor of the electric motor, is born in Jehay-Bodegnée, Belgium. Before Gramme's invention, electric motors attained only low power and were mainly used as toys or laboratory curiosities.

1828–Casparus van Wooden, of Amsterdam, patents chocolate milk powder.

1841–William Henry Harrison dies of pneumonia in Washington, D.C., at age 68. He is the first President of the United States to die in office. He also served the shortest term as President. John Tyler takes the oath of office, the first to do so under such circumstances.

1850–The city of Los Angeles, California, is incorporated.

1850–A large part of the Cambridgeshire village in England is burnt to the ground under suspicious circumstances.

1859–Daniel Emmett introduces Wish I Was in Dixie’s Land (later named Dixie) at a minstral show in New York City. Just two years later, it became the Civil War song of the Confederacy.

1865–A day after Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln visits the Confederate capital.

1866–Alexander II of Russia narrowly escapes an assassination attempt in the city of Kiev, Russia.

1870–Golden Gate Park is established in San Francisco, California.

1870–George A. Smith, 8th President of the Mormon Church, is born in Salt Lake City, Utah.

1873–The Kennel Club is founded as the oldest and first official registry of purebred dogs in the world.

1875–Conductor, Pierre Monteux, is born in Paris, France. He was conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1919 to 1924.

1887–Susanna M. Salter is elected the first female Mayor in the United States in Arbonia, Kansas.

1887–Biochemist, William Cumming Rose, is born in Greenville, South Carolina. He researched amino acids and established the importance of the eight essential amino acids in human nutrition.

1890–Politician, Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau, dies in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, at age 69. He was the first Premier of Quebec, Canada.

1892–Politician, José María Castro Madriz, dies in San José, Costa Rica, at age 73. He was the first President of Costa Rica. At age 29, he was the youngest person to serve as the Costa Rican President.

1895–Dance instructor, Arthur Murray, is born Moses Teichman in Podhajce, Kingdom of Galicia, Austro-Hungarian Empire. He founded the Arthur Murray Dance Studio.

1896–News of the Yukon's Klondike gold strike reaches the outside world.

1897–Super-centenarian, Dina Manfredini, is born Dina Guerri in Pievepelago, Emilia-Romagna, Italy. She would live to the age of 115 (and 257 days). She had four children (aged 91, 90, and 84), seven grandchildren, seven great-grandchildren, and 12 great-great-grandchildren.

1899–Benjamin F. Jackson patents a gas burner.

1900–An assassination attempt is made on the Prince of Wales, King Edward VII.

1902–British financier, Cecil Rhodes, leaves $10 million in his will to provide scholarships for British and American students at Oxford University. This brought forth the term, “Rhodes Scholar.”

1905–An 8.6 earthquake in Kangra, India, kills 20,000 people and and destroys most buildings in Kangra, McLeod Ganj, and Dharamsala.

1906–Actress, Bea Benaderet, is born Beatrice Benaderet in New York, New York. She is best known for the role of Kate Bradley on the TV sitcoms Petticoat Junction and Green Acres.

1906–Newscaster, John Cameron Swayze, is born in Wichita, Kansas. He was a spokesperson and game show panelist during the 1950s. In 1949, Swayze was chosen to host NBC's first television newscast, the 15-minute Camel News Caravan. He read items from the news wires and periodically interviewed newsmakers. He was also widely known for starring in a series of TV commercials for Timex, where he recited the tagline, "It takes a licking and keeps on ticking."

1910–Barthelemy Boganda, the first President of the Central African Republic, is born in Bobangui, Oubangui-Chari.

1911–Hugh Chalmers suggests the idea of baseball’s “Most Valuable Player” (MVP).

1912–Isaac K. Funk dies at age 72. He was a Lutheran minister, editor, lexicographer, publisher, and spelling reformer. He was the co-founder of Funk & Wagnalls Company, which published The Literary Digest, The Standard Dictionary of the English Language, and Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia.

1913–First Balkan War: Greek aviator, Emmanouil Argyropoulos, becomes the first pilot to die in the Hellenic Air Force when his plane crashes during the First Balkan War.

1913–Singer, (Julia) Frances Langford, is born in Lakeland, Florida. She appeared in the films Palm Springs, Born to Dance, Hollywood Hotel, Too Many Girls, Yankee Doodle Dandy, This is the Army, Never a Dull Moment, and The Glenn Miller Story.

1914–The first known serialized moving picture opens in New York City. It is The Perils of Pauline, starring Pearl White.

1915–Blues guitarist, Muddy Waters, is born McKinley Morganfield in Rolling Fork, Mississippi. He is often considered the "father of modern Chicago blues. Muddy's influence is tremendous: not just on blues and rhythm and blues but on rock 'n' roll, hard rock, folk, jazz, and country. His use of amplification is often cited as the link between Delta blues and rock 'n' roll.

1916–The U.S. Senate agrees (82-6) to participate in World War I.

1916–Actor, David White, is born in Denver, Colorado. He is best known for the role of Larry Tate on Bewitched. He also appeared in Peter Gunn, Mr. Lucky, The Untouchables, The Fugitive, Mission: Impossible, Bonanza, Have Gun Will Travel, My Favorite Martian, and The Twilight Zone.

1917–Vladimir Lenin issues his April Theses, calling for Soviets to take power.

1920–Arabs attack Jews in Jerusalem.

1920–Ignatius IV of Antioch is born Habib Hazim in Mhardeh (Hama Governorate), French Mandate of Syria. He was the Patriarch of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch and All The East from 1979 to 2012.

1921–The Stanley Cup: The Ottawa Senators beats the Vancouver Millionaires, 3 games to 2.

1921–Actress, Elizabeth (Welter) Wilson, is born in Grand Rapids, Michigan. She appeared in the films Picnic, Patterns, The Goddess, The Tunnel of Love, A Child Is Waiting, The Birds, The Graduate, Catch-22, The Day of the Dolphin, The Prisoner of Second Avenue, The Happy Hooker, Nine to Five, Regarding Henry, The Addams Family, and Quiz Show.

1922–Film composer, Elmer Bernstein, is born in New York, New York. In a career which spanned 50 years, he composed music for hundreds of film and television productions. His most popular works include the scores to The Magnificent Seven, The Ten Commandments, The Great Escape, To Kill a Mockingbird, Ghostbusters, The Black Cauldron, Airplane!, and The Rookies. He was not related to the celebrated composer and conductor, Leonard Bernstein.

1923–Actor, Peter Vaughan, is born in Wem, Shropshire, England. He appeared in the films The 39 Steps, Village of the Damned, I Thank a Fool, The Naked Runner, A Twist of Sand, Eyewitness, Straw Dogs, The Mackintosh Man, 11 Harrowhouse, Time Bandits, The French Lieutenant’s Woman, The Remains of the Day, Death at a Funeral, and Game of Thrones.

1924–Blues singer, Bessie Smith, records Rocking Chair Blues for Columbia Records.

1924–Baseball player, Gil Hodges, is born in Princeton, Indiana. He was an American Major League Baseball (MLB) first baseman and manager, who played most of his 18-year career for the Brooklyn and Los Angeles Dodgers. He was inducted into the New York Mets Hall of Fame in 1982.

1925–The Schutzstaffel (SS) is founded in Germany.

1926–Men's outfitter, Thomas Burberry, dies at his home in Hook, near Basingstoke, England, at age 90. He was the inventor of gabardine fabric. Burberry's eponymous brand would become one of the largest in Great Britain.

1928–Poet, Maya Angelou, is born Marguerite (Annnie) Johnson in St. Louis, Missouri. Her first autobiography, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, was published in 1969 to critical acclaim. Angelou went on to write seven autobiographies, spoke more than six languages, and earned over 30 honorary degrees.

1929–Automobile engineer, Karl Friedrich Benz, dies from a bronchial inflammation in Ladenburg, Germany, at age 84. He is generally regarded as the inventor of the first automobile powered by an internal combustion engine, and together with Bertha Benz, a pioneering founder of the automobile manufacturer Mercedes-Benz.

1930–The Communist Party of Panama is founded.

1930–Swedish Queen, Victoria of Baden, dies at her home Villa Svezia in Rome, Italy, at age 67.

1931–Industrialist and tire manufacturer, Andre Michelin, dies in Paris, France, at age 78. He co-founded the Michelin Tire Company. In 1900, Michelin published the first Michelin Guide, to promote tourism by car, thereby supporting his tire manufacturing operation.

1932–Vitamin C is first isolated by C.C. King at the University of Pittsburgh.

1932–Record executive, Clive (Jay) Davis, is born in Brooklyn, New York. From 1967 to 1973, Davis was the president of Columbia Records. He was the founder and president of Arista Records from 1975 through 2000. He has played a part in the careers of TLC, Aretha Franklin, Rod Stewart, Alicia Keys, Barry Manilow, Christina Aguilera, Carlos Santana, Kelly Clarkson, Leona Lewis, Jennifer Hudson, and Whitney Houston.

1932–Actor, Anthony Perkins, is born in New York, New York. He is best known for the role of Norman Bates in Psycho. He also appeared in the films Friendly Persuasion, Fear Strikes Out, The Tin Star, Desire Under the Elms, The Matchmaker, Green Mansions, On the Beach, Tall Story, Goodbye Again, Phaedra, The Trial, Evening Primrose, Pretty Poison, Catch-22, How Awful About Allan, Play It As It Lays, Lovin’ Molly, Murder on the Orient Express, Mahogany, and Winter Kills.

1933–U.S. Navy airship, USS Akron, is wrecked off the New Jersey coast due to severe weather.

1935–Actor, Kenneth Mars, is born in Chicago, Illinois. He appeared in the films The Producers, The April Fools, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, What’s Up, Doc?, The Parallax View, Young Frankenstein, Fletch, Misfits of Science, and Radio Days.

1937–The 4th Golf Masters Championship: Byron Nelson wins, shooting a 283.

1938–The 5th Golf Masters Championship: Henry Picard wins, shooting a 285.

1938–Actor, Michael Parks, is born Harry Samuel Parks in Corona, California. He is best known for the leading role in the TV series Then Came Bronson. He appeared in the films Bus Riley’s Back in Town, The Idol, The Happening, Between Friends, The Last Hard Men, Rainbow, Breakthrough, Hard Country, Savannah Smiles, Caged Fury, The China Lake Murders, From Dusk till Dawn, Kill Bill 1 & 2, Argo, and Django Unchained.

1939–Faisal II becomes King of Iraq.

1939–Glenn Miller records his theme song, Moonlight Serenade, for Bluebird Records.

1939–Singer, Major Lance, is born in Winterville, Mississippi. His hits include The Monkey Time and Hey Little Girl.

1939–Jazz musician, Hugh (Ramopolo) Masekela, is born in Kwa-Guqa Township, Wilbank, South Africa. He is a trumpeter, flugelhornist, cornetist, composer, and singer. He was an artist who in his music vividly portrayed the struggles and sorrows, as well as the joys and passions, of his country. His music protested about apartheid, slavery, government, and the hardships of the people. His biggest pop hit was Grazing in the Grass.

1939–Ghazi I, King of Iraq, dies in a car accident, and Faisal II ascends to throne.

1941–German troops conquer Banghazi.

1942–Biographer, Kitty Kelley, is born in Spokane, Washington. She is the author of several best-selling unauthorized biographies of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Rock Hudson, Elizabeth Taylor, Frank Sinatra, Nancy Reagan, the British Royal Family, the Bush Family, and Oprah Winfrey.

1944–During World War II, the first bombardment of oil refineries in Bucharest by Anglo-American forces kills 3,000 civilians.

1944–Actor, Craig T. Nelson, is born Craig Theodore Nelson in Spokane, Washington. He is best known for his starring role in the sitcom Coach. He appeared in the films ...And Justice for All, Stir Crazy, Where the Buffalo Roam, Private Benjamin, Poltergeist, Silkwood, All the Right Moves, The Osterman Weekend, The Killing Fields, Turner & Hooch, Ghosts of Mississippi, Wag the Dog, and The Family Stone.

1945–American troops liberate the Ohrdruf forced labor camp in Germany.

1945–Hungary is liberated from Nazi occupation (National Liberation Day).

1947–Actor, Luke (Austin) Halpin, is born in Astoria, Queens, New York. Beginning a prolific career as a child actor at the age of eight, Halpin is best known for his role as Sandy Ricks in the films Flipper and Flipper's New Adventure, and for the TV series Flipper. Following his acting career, Halpin began working as a stuntman, marine coordinator, diver, and speedboat pilot for feature films such as Never Say Never Again, Porky's Revenge!, and Flight of the Navigator.

1948–Berry Oakley, of The Allman Brothers Band, is born Raymond Berry Oakley III in Chicago, Illinois.

1948–Pick Withers, drummer for Dire Straits, is born David Withers in Leicester, England. He played on the group’s first four albums, which included the hit singles Sultans of Swing, Romeo and Juliet, and Private Investigations.

1949–Twelve nations sign the North Atlantic Treaty, creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

1949–Junior Braithwaite, of Bob Marley and the Wailers, is born Franklin Delano Alexander Braithwaite in Kingston, Jamaica.

1950–Actress, Christine (Ann) Lahti, is born in Birmingham, Michigan. She appeared in the films ...And Justice for All, Whose Life Is It Anyway?, The Executioner’s Song, Swing Shift, Desert Bloom, Just Between Friends, Housekeeping, Running on Empty, Miss Firecracker, The Doctor, Crazy from the Heart, Leaving Normal, and The Fear Inside.

1951–Steve Gatlin, of The Gatlin Brothers, is born in Olney, Texas.

1952–Gary Moore, of Skid Row and Thin Lizzy, is born Robert William Gary Moore in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

1953–Carol II of Romania dies in exile in Estoril, Portugal, at age 59.

1954–Maestro, Arturo Toscanini, conducts his last concert with the NBC Symphony Orchestra at Carnegie Hall in New York City. The performance would end a 17-year association with the orchestra.

1956–Producer and screenwriter, David E. Kelley, is born in Waterville, Maine. He is the creator of the TV series Picket Fences, Chicago Hope, The Practice, Ally McBeal, Boston Public, Boston Legal, and Harry's Law. He is married to actress, Michelle Pfeiffer.

1958–The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) peace symbol is displayed in public for the first time in London, England.

1958–Mob member, Johnny Stompanato, dies in the home of Lana Turner in Beverly Hills, California, at age 32. He was a former U.S. Marine who became a bodyguard and enforcer for gangster Mickey Cohen. He was stabbed to death by Turner's daughter, Cheryl Crane. She was acquitted in a subsequent trial after stating she was defending her mother, who was being attacked by Stompanato.

1960–France agrees to grant independence to the Mali Federation, a union of Senegal and French Sudan.

1960–Billboard magazine reports that RCA Victor Records will release all pop singles in mono and stereo, the first record company to do so. Elvis Presley's first post-Army single, Stuck on You, is the label's first mono-stereo release.

1960–The 32nd Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Ben-Hur; Best Actor: Charlton Heston for Ben-Hur; Best Actress: Simone Signoret for Room at the Top; Best Director: William Wyler for Ben-Hur; Best Foreign Film: Black Orpheus (France). The ceremonies are held at the Pantages Theatre in Hollywood, California. The host is Bob Hope.

1960–Actor, Hugo (Wallace) Weaving, is born in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. He is best He is best known for his roles as Agent Smith in The Matrix trilogy, and Elrond in The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit film trilogy. He also appeared in the films The City’s Edge, For Love Alone, Proof, Frauds, Exile, The Adventures of Priscilla Queen of the Desert, and Little Fish.

1963–The Beatles perform at Roxburgh Hall, Stowe School, Stowe, Buckinghamshire, England. This appearance is at a boys' public school and is due to the request of student, Dave Moores, who had written a letter inviting them there.

1963–A chart topper: He's So Fine by The Chiffons.

1964–Single records by The Beatles have held the #1 spot for 10 straight weeks. And Billboard reports: "Just about everyone is tired of The Beatles. Disc jockeys are tired of playing the hit group, the writers of trade and consumer publications are tired of writing about them, and the manufacturers of products aimed at the group’s fans are tired of hearing about them. Everyone's tired of The Beatles... except the listening and buying public."

1964–Child actor, Robbie Rist, is born Robert Anthony Rist in Woodland Hills, California. He is best known for the role of Cousin Oliver on the hit TV series The Brady Bunch.

1965–The first model of the new Saab Viggen fighter aircraft is unveiled.

1965–Actor, Robert (John) Downey, Jr., is born in New York, New York. He has appeared in the films Baby It’s You, Weird Science, The Pick Up Artist, Less Than Zero, 1969, Chances Are, Air America, Soapdish, Chaplin, Heart and Souls, Richard III, Natural Born Killers, Short Cuts, Restoration, Wonder Boys, and The Singing Detective. His father is director, Robert Downey, Sr.

1966–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1966–Actress, Nancy (Justine) McKeon, is born in Westbury, New York. She is best known for her co-starring role in the TV series The Facts of Life. She appeared in the films Where the Day Takes You, Teresa’s Tattoo, The Wrong Woman, Just Write, and A Cry for Help: The Tracey Thurman Story.

1967–Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers his "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence" speech in New York City's Riverside Church.

1967–Johnny Carson quits The Tonight Show, but he will return three weeks later with an additional $30,000 to his weekly salary.

1968–NASA launches Apollo 6.

1968–Martin Luther King, Jr. is shot and killed on the balcony of a hotel in Memphis, Tennessee, at age 39. His killer is James Earl Ray. Riots break out in 30 American cities, leaving 39 people dead. James Brown goes on national television to urge restraint and a constructive channeling of anger. In New York, Jimi Hendrix, B.B. King, and Buddy Guy play an all-night tribute to the slain leader.

1969–Dr. Denton Cooley implants the first temporary artificial heart.

1970–The Firestone World Bowling Tournament of Champions is won by Don Johnson.

1972–The first electric power plant fueled by garbage begins operation.

1972–Politician, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., dies of acute prostatitis in Miami, Florida, at age 63. He was the first person from New York of African-American descent to be elected to the U.S. Congress, and the fourth African American from the North to be elected in the Post-Reconstruction Era. He became a powerful national politician of the Democratic Party, and was re-elected numerous times, serving as a national spokesman on civil rights and social issues.

1972–Magnus Sveningsson, of The Cardigans, is born in Falkoping, Sweden.

1973–The World Trade Center in New York City is officially dedicated.

1973–A Lockheed C-141 Starlifter, dubbed the Hanoi Taxi, makes the last flight of Operation Homecoming out of Vietnam.

1973–Sandia Crest, near Albuquerque, New Mexico, reports a snow depth of 95 inches, a record for the state.

1974–While on vacation in Los Angeles, California, Paul and Linda McCartney pay a visit to Brian Wilson (the now-reclusive Beach Boys genius) at his Bel Air home. The McCartneys bang on the door for over an hour, but Wilson refuses to let them in. They know Brian is there, because they can hear him inside, quietly crying to himself. Paul and Linda have no choice but to finally give up and go on their way.

1975–Microsoft is founded as a partnership between Bill Gates and Paul Allen in in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

1975–In Operation Babylift, a U.S. Air Force Lockheed C-5A Galaxy transporting orphans, crashes shortly after takeoff near Saigon, South Vietnam, killing 172 people.

1975–Ringo Starr forms a new record label called Ring O’Records, a name that was suggested to him by John Lennon.

1975–Model and actress, Joyce Giraud, is born Joyce Marie Giraud Mojica in Aguas Buenas, Puerto Rico. She was Miss Puerto Rico in 1994. In 2013, Joyce joined the cast of the reality show The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills for its fourth season.

1976–Prince Norodom Sihanouk resigns as leader of Cambodia and is placed under house arrest.

1976–Actress, Alicia Silverstone, is born in San Francisco, California.

1979–Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, dies by execution for murder in Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan at age 51. Before being hanged, Bhutto made a final speech and his last words were: "Oh Lord, help me for... I am innocent." He was the fourth President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973, and the ninth Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977. On July 5, 1977, chief of army staff General Zia-ul-Haq deposed Bhutto in a bloodless coup, and had the former Prime Minister controversially tried by the Supreme Court in 1979 for the murder of a political opponent, Ahmad Raza Khan Kasuri.

1979–Actor, Heath (Andrew) Ledger, is born in Perth, Western Australia. He is best known for the role of Ennis Del Mar in the film Brokeback Mountain, for which he received an Oscar nomination as Best Actor. He also appeared in the films 10 Things I Hate About You, The Patriot, The Four Feathers, Ned Kelly, Casanova, I’m Not There, The Dark Knight, and The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus.

1979–Actor, Edgar Buchanan, dies from a stroke complicated by pneumonia in Palm Desert, California, at age 76. He is best known for the role of Uncle Joe on the sitcoms Petticoat Junction, Green Acres, and The Beverly Hillbillies.

1980–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.

1980–Alton Towers opens in Staffordshire, England. Major attractions at the amusement park include Nemesis, Oblivion, Air, Runaway Mine Train, Hex: The Legend of the Towers, TH13TEEN, The Flume, and The Smiler.

1980–Country singer, Red Sovine, dies of a heart attack in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 64. He was associated with truck driving songs, particularly those recited as narratives, but set to music. The most famous examples are his 1965 number #1 hit, Giddyup Go, and his 1976 #1 hit Teddy Bear.

1981–The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force mounts an attack on H-3 Airbase and destroys about 50 Iraqi aircraft.

1983–The Space Shuttle Challenger makes its maiden voyage into space.

1983–Actress, Gloria Swanson, dies of a heart ailment in New York, New York, at age 84. She appeared in the films Sadie Thompson, Indiscreet, Tonight or Never, Father Takes a Wife, Sunset Boulevard, and Airport 1975.

1984–President Ronald Reagan calls for an international ban on chemical weapons.

1984–Bob Bell retires as Bozo the Clown on WGN-TV in Chicago, Illinois. Bell was an institution in the role, since making his first appearance in 1960.

1988–Evan Mecham, Governor of Arizona, is convicted in his impeachment trial and is removed from office.

1991–The current flag of Hong Kong is adopted for post-colonial Hong Kong during the Third Session of the Seventh National People's Congress.

1991–John Heinz, Senator of Pennsylvania, and six others are killed when a helicopter collides with their plane over an elementary school in Merion, Pennsylvania.

1993–Game designer, Alfred Mosher Butts, dies in Rhinebeck, New York, at age 93. He invented Scrabble.

1994–Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark establish Netscape Communications Corporation under the name Mosaic Communications Corporation.

1994–Actor, Tony Curtis, undergoes heart bypass surgery.

1994–Los Angeles Dodger, Darryl Strawberry, begins substance abuse treatment.

1995–British radio and TV personality, Kenny Everett, dies in his sleep of an AIDS-related illness in London, England. Everett’s long association with The Beatles dates back to his coverage of their American tours in the 1960s.

1996–Comet Hyakutake is imaged by the USA Asteroid Orbiter Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous.

1996–Grateful Dead guitarist, Bob Weir, and Jerry Garcia's widow, Deborah, scatter part of Garcia's ashes in the Ganges River in India.

1998–A locust plague in Ethiopia covers almost 4,000 acres.

1998–The Tragedy in U.S. History Museum closes in St. Augustine, Florida. In 1963, L.H. "Buddy" Hough decided to to open a museum (in his own house) dedicated to all the bad things that had happened in America. With distasteful exhibits such as Lee Harvey Oswald's bedroom furniture and questionable relics related to the deaths of Jayne Mansfield and Bonnie and Clyde, the city of St. Augustine fought the existance of the museum from its beginning to its end.

2002–The Angolan government and UNITA rebels sign a peace treaty ending the Angolan Civil War.

2005–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: Nigel Jaquiss, of Willamette Week, Portland, Oregon, for his investigation exposing a former governor’s long concealed sexual misconduct with a 14-year-old girl; Fiction: Gilead by Marilynne Robinson (Farrar); Drama: Doubt, a parable by John Patrick Shanley (TCG); Non-Fiction: Ghost Wars by Steve Coll (The Penguin Press); History: Washington's Crossing by David Hackett Fischer (Oxford University Press); Biography or Autobiography: de Kooning–An American Master by Mark Stevens and Annalyn Swan (Alfred A. Knopf); Poetry: Delights & Shadows by Ted Kooser (Copper Canyon Press); Photography: Deanne Fitzmaurice, of The San Francisco Chronicle; Music: Second Concerto for Orchestra by Steven Stucky (Theodore Presser Company).

2007–Fifteen British Royal Navy personnel held in Iran are released by the Iranian President.

2008–Singer, Beyonce Knowles, marries rapper, Jay-Z, at a 13,500-square-foot penthouse apartment in New York.

2009–Three police officers are shot and killed during a shootout in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

2009–The 24th Annual Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony is held. This year’s inductees are: (Performers) Bobby Womack, Jeff Beck, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Run-D.M.C., and Metallica; (Non-Performer) Kenny Gamble and Leon Huff; (Sidemen) Bill Black, D.J. Fontana, and Spooner Oldham; and (Early Influence) Wanda Jackson. This was the first-ever induction ceremony open to the public, held at Public Hall in Cleveland, Ohio. The event is simulcast inside the Hall of Fame and other locations in the city, and is broadcast nationally on the FUSE TV network. To celebrate the induction returning to the home of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, special musical events took place all week in Cleveland, leading up to the big night.

2010–Actress, Lori Martin, dies from undisclosed causes in Oakhurst, California, at age 62. She is best known for the starring role in the TV version of National Velvet. She appeared in the films Machine-Gun Kelly, The FBI Story, Cash McCall, Cape Fear, and The Chase.

2012–Boris Tadic, President of Serbia, resigns.

2012–American cat and Internet icon, Grumpy Cat, is born Tardar Sauce in Morristown, Arizona. Lifetime produced a film about Grumpy Cat, entitled Grumpy Cat's Worst Christmas Ever, which debuted on November 29, 2014. As of December 10, 2014, "The Official Grumpy Cat" page on Facebook had over seven million "likes."

2013–More than 70 people are killed in a building collapse in Thane, India.

2013–Film critic, Roger Ebert, dies of cancer at age 70. Ebert, who worked at The Chicago Sun-Times from 1967 until his death, reviewed nearly 200 movies a year during his career. He received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2005. In his last blog post he said, "Thank you for going on this journey with me. I'll see you at the movies."

2015–Jenny Wallenda, matriarch of the circus family, The Flying Wallendas, dies after a kong illness in Sarasota, Florida, at age 87. She was the oldest daughter of high wire walker, Karl Wallenda, and grandmother of daredevil performer, Nik Wallenda.

2016–Greece begins deporting migrants to Turkey.

2016–South Korea announces plans to crack down on illegal immigrants.

2017–The National Archives and Records Administration advised the White House to save all of President Trump's tweets, even the ones he deletes or corrects. The Presidential Records Act requires that such correspondence be preserved for history.

2017–Tim Berners-Lee, the man credited with inventing the World Wide Web, is honored with the 2016 Turing Award. The award, which is often referred to as the Nobel Prize for the computing industry, is presented annually by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to an individual who made “major contributions of lasting importance to computing.” It is named in honor of British mathematician and scientist, Alan Turing, and backed by a $1 million prize courtesy of Google.

2018–President Donald Trump signs an order sending the National Guard to patrol the Mexico-United States border in reponse to the failure of Congress to pass tightened border security measures.

2018–The first ever direct train from London, England, to Amsterdam departs from the St. Pancras railway station. The new Eurostar service takes an estimated three hours and 41 minutes.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Roman Emperor, Caracalla; Frederick II of Denmark; Nepoleon II; Golden Gate Park art; the Arthur Murray Dance Studio logo; John Cameron Swayze; Muddy Waters; Elmer Bernstein; a vintage Mercedes-Benz; Anthony Perkins; Michael Parks; Luke Halpin; Christine Lahti; a peace symbol; Hugo Weaving; Robbie Rist; Dr. Denton Cooley; Sandia Crest, near Albuquerque, New Mexico; Ring O'Records logo; Heath Ledger; Gloria Swanson; art for the game Scrabble; a locust plague; Beyonce and Jay-Z's wedding; and Grumpy Cat.

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