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1877–Writer, Alice B. Toklas, is born Alice Babette Toklas in San Francisco, California. She met Gertrude Stein in Paris, France, on September 8, 1907, the day she arrived. Together they hosted a salon that attracted expatriate American writers, such as Ernest Hemingway, Paul Bowles, Thornton Wilder, and Sherwood Anderson; along with avant-garde painters, including Picasso, Matisse, and Braque. Toklas published her own literary memoir in 1954, a book that mixed reminiscences and recipes under the title The Alice B. Toklas Cookbook. Its most famous recipe (actually contributed by her friend Brion Gysin) was called "Haschich Fudge," a mixture of fruit, nuts, spices, and marijuana. Her name was later lent to the range of cannabis concoctions called “Alice B. Toklas brownies.”



65–Roman poet, Lucan, dies from suicide at age 25. Despite his short life, he is regarded as one of the outstanding figures of the Imperial Latin period. He is best knonw for Bellum Civile (Civil War), based on the wars between Julius Caesar and Pompey.

125–Emperor An of Han of the Chinese Han dynasty dies while traveling to Nanyang, at age 31.

311–Emperor Galerius legally recognizes Christianity in the Roman Empire.

313–Emperor Licinius defeats Maximinus II and unifies the Eastern Roman Empire.

642–Chindasuinth is proclaimed king by the Visigothic (Goths) nobility and bishops.

1030–Mahmud of Ghazni dies in Ghazna (present-day Afghanistan) at age 58. He was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire. He conquered the eastern Iranian lands and the northwestern Indian subcontinent (present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan). He was the first ruler to carry the title of Sultan.

1063–Emperor Renzong of Song dies in China, at age 52.

1245–King Philip III of France is born in Poissy, France.

1310–Polish King, Casimir III the Great, is born in Kowal, Poland.

1315–Enguerrand de Marigny is hanged at the instigation of Charles, Count of Valois.

1341–John III, Duke of Brittany, dies in Caen, France, at age 51.

1483–Orbital calculations indicate that Pluto moved inside Neptune's orbit, and would remain there until July 23, 1503.

1492–Queen Isabella of Spain gives Christopher Columbus his commission of exploration.

1492–Spain announces it will expel all Jews.

1513–Edmund de la Pole, Yorkist pretender to the English throne, is executed on the orders of Henry VIII.

1517–The Evil May Day riots, as a protest against foreigners, begin in London, England.

1550–Burmese King, Tabinshwehti, dies by assassination near Pantanaw, Myanmar, at age 34. He was King of Toungoo Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1530 to 1550, and the founder of the Toungoo Empire. His military campaigns created the largest kingdom in Burma since the fall of the Pagan Empire in 1287.

1553–Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont, Queen of France, is born in Nomeny, France.

1557–Mapuche leader, Lautaro, is killed by Spanish forces at the Battle of Mataquito in Chile.

1563–King Charles VI orders that all Jews are to be expelled from France.

1598–Juan de Oñate makes a formal declaration of his Conquest of New Mexico.

1598–Henry IV of France issues the Edict of Nantes, allowing freedom of religion to the Huguenots.

1632–Sigismund III Vasa, Polish and Swedish King, dies of a stroke at the Royal Castle in Warsaw, Poland, at age 65.

1636–During the Eighty Years' War, Dutch Republic forces recapture a strategically important fort from Spain after a nine-month siege.

1662–Queen Mary II of England is born at St. James's Palace in London, England. She was joint Sovereign of England, Scotland, and Ireland with her husband, William III and II, from 1689 until her death. William and Mary, both Protestants, became king and queen regnant, respectively, following the Glorious Revolution, which resulted in the deposition of her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII.

1777–(Johann) Carl Friedrich Gauss, the world's foremost mathematician, is born in Brunswick, Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Holy Roman Empire. He contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, mechanics, electrostatics, astronomy, matrix theory, and optics.

1789–On the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York City, George Washington is inaugurated as the first President of the United States.

1798–The U.S. Congress establishes the Department of the Navy.

1803–The United States doubles in size through the Louisiana Purchase, which President Thomas Jefferson bought for $15 million.

1812–The Territory of Orleans becomes the 18th state of the United States of America, under the name Louisiana.

1812–Feral child, Kaspar Hauser, is born in an unknown location Germany. He claimed to have grown up in the total isolation of a darkened cell. As a teenage boy, Hauser said the first human being with whom he ever had contact was a mysterious man who visited him not long before his release, always taking great care not to reveal his face to him. This man, Hauser said, taught him to write his name by leading his hand. After learning to stand and walk, he was brought to Nuremberg, Germany.

1838–Nicaragua declares independence from the Central American Federation.

1857–Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh, dies at Gloucester House in London, England, at age 81. She was the 11th child, and 4th daughter, of King George III of the United Kingdom.

1863–A 65-man French Foreign Legion infantry patrol fights a force of nearly 2,000 Mexican soldiers to nearly the last man in Hacienda Camarón, Mexico.

1864–New York becomes first state to charge a fee for a hunting license.

1867–Burton C. Mossman is born near Aurora, Illinois. He was a lawman and cattleman in the final years of the Old West. He is best remembered for his capture of the notorious border bandit, Augustine Chacon, in 1902. He was also a successful businessman who owned the large Diamond A Ranch near Roswell, New Mexico.

1871–The Camp Grant massacre takes place in Arizona Territory. This was an attack on Pinal and Aravaipa Apaches who surrendered to the United States Army at Camp Grant, along the San Pedro River.

1877–The French Academy of Sciences receives papers describing Charles Cross' new invention, the phonograph.

1877–Writer, Alice B. Toklas, is born Alice Babette Toklas in San Francisco, California. She met Gertrude Stein in Paris, France, on September 8, 1907, the day she arrived. Together they hosted a salon that attracted expatriate American writers, such as Ernest Hemingway, Paul Bowles, Thornton Wilder, and Sherwood Anderson; along with avant-garde painters, including Picasso, Matisse, and Braque. Toklas published her own literary memoir in 1954, a book that mixed reminiscences and recipes under the title The Alice B. Toklas Cookbook. Its most famous recipe (actually contributed by her friend Brion Gysin) was called "Haschich Fudge," a mixture of fruit, nuts, spices, and marijuana. Her name was later lent to the range of cannabis concoctions called “Alice B. Toklas brownies.”

1883–Edouard Manet, French impressionist painter, dies in Paris, France, at age 51. Originally destined for a legal career, he studied art from 1850, and was heavily influenced by painter, Claude Monet. Manet had contracted syphilis in his forties, for which he sought no treatment. The disease caused him great suffering in the years leading up to his death.

1885–David B. Hill, Governor of New York, signs legislation creating the Niagara Reservation (New York's first state park), ensuring that Niagara Falls will not be devoted solely to industrial and commercial use.

1885–The Boston Pops Orchestra is founded.

1889–The George Washington Bridge, linking New York City and New Jersey, opens.

1894–Coxey's Army reaches Washington, D.C., to protest the unemployment caused by the Panic of 1893.

1897–At a lecture at the Royal Institution in London, England, J.J. Thomson of the Cavendish Laboratory announces his discovery of the electron as a subatomic particle, over 1,800 times smaller than a proton (in the atomic nucleus).

1900–Hawaii becomes a territory of the United States.

1900–Railroad engineer, Casey Jones, dies in the collision of two trains near Canton, Mississippi, at age 36. By one account, his body was found lying under the cab, with his skull crushed and right arm torn from its socket. He had stayed upon the train in an attempt to save the lives of the passengers.

1904–The Louisiana Purchase Exposition World's Fair opens in St. Louis, Missouri.

1904–The ice cream cone makes its debut in America.

1907–Honolulu, Hawaii, becomes an independent city.

1908–Actress, Eve Arden, is born Eunice Mary Quedens in Mill Valley, California. She is best known for her starring role in the TV series Our Miss Brooks. She appeared in the films Stage Door, At the Circus, She Couldn’t Say No, Ziegfeld Girl, Mildred Pierce, The Kid from Brooklyn, Tea for Two, We’re Not Married!, Anatomy of a Murder, and Grease.

1909–Juliana, Queen of the Netherlands (1948-1980), is born Juliana Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina at Noordeinde Palace, The Hague, Netherlands.

1913–Folklorist, Edith Fowke, is born in Lumsden, Saskatchewan, Canada. She hosted the CBC Radio program Folk Song Time from 1950 to 1963. She wrote numerous books in collaboration with folklorist and composer, Richard Johnston, including Folk Songs of Canada (Waterloo Music Company 1954), Folk Songs of Quebec (Waterloo 1957), Chansons canadiennes françaises (Waterloo 1964), and More Folk Songs of Canada (Waterloo 1967).

1920–Peru becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.

1923–Percy Heath, of The Modern Jazz Quartet, is born in Wilmington, North Carolina.

1923–Actor, Al Lewis, is born Albert Meister in New York, New York. He is best known for his role as Grandpa Munster on the TV series The Munsters. He also co-starred in Car 54, Where Are You? He appeared in the films Pretty Boy Floyd, The World of Henry Orient, Munster, Go Home!, They Shoot Horses, Don’t They?, The Boatniks, Used Cars, and Married to the Mob.

1925–Automaker, Dodge Brothers, Inc., is sold to Dillon, Read & Co. for $146 million (plus $50 million for charity).

1925–Singer, Johnny Horton, is born John Gale Horton in Los Angeles, California. His hits include When It’s Springtime in Alaska (It’s Forty Below), The Battle of New Orleans, Sink the Bismark, and North to Alaska.

1926–Actress, Cloris Leachman, is born in Des Moines, Iowa. She is best known for the role of Phyllis Lindstrom on the TV sitcoms The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Rhoda, and Phyllis. She appeared in the films Kiss Me Deadly, The Rack, The Chapman Report, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, Lovers and Other Strangers, The Last Picture Show, Dillinger, Young Frankenstein, History of the World Part I, Walk Like a Man, Texasville, The Beverly Hillbillies, Music of the Heart, Spanglish, and The Wedding Ringer.

1927–The Federal Industrial Institute for Women, opens in Alderson, West Virginia, as the first women's federal prison in the U.S.

1927–Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford become the first movie stars to leave their footprints in concrete at Grauman's Chinese Theater in Hollywood, California.

1933–Luis Sanchez Cerro, President of Peru, is assassinated by Hurtado de Mendoza.

1935–The World Congress for Women's Rights concludes in Istanbul.

1936–J. Edgar Hoover makes his first arrest as Director of the FBI.

1937–The Commonwealth of the Philippines holds a plebiscite for Filipino women on whether they should be extended the right to suffrage and over 90% voted “yes.”

1938–The animated cartoon short, Porky's Hare Hunt, debuts in movie theaters, introducing Happy Rabbit (a prototype of Bugs Bunny).

1938–Actor, (Ennis) Collins, is born in Venice, California. He was cast in many televisions shows, including Perry Mason, Ironside, Hawaii Five-O, McCloud, The Sixth Sense, and The Bionic Woman. He appeared in the films Stranded, Angel in My Pocket, Airport, Hanger 18, and Beautiful. He was married to Miss America, Mary Ann Mobley.

1939–The New York World's Fair opens.

1939–NBC-TV inaugurates its regularly scheduled television service in New York City, broadcasting President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New York World's Fair opening day ceremonial address.

1940–Actor, Burt Young, is born Gerald Tommaso DeLouise in Queens, New York. He is best known for the role of Paulie Pennino in the Rocky film franchise. He also appeared in the films The Gang That Couldn't Shoot Straight, Cinderella Liberty, Chinatown, The Gambler, The Killer Elite, The Choirboys, Convoy, Lookin' to Get Out, Over the Brooklyn Bridge, Once Upon a Time in America, The Pope of Greenwich Village, Betsy’s Wedding, and Rocky Balboa.

1941–Johnny Farina, of Santo & Johnny, is born in Brooklyn, New York. The duo had a big hit with Sleep Walk.

1943–The Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp for Jews is built.

1943–Pop singer, Bobby Vee, is born Robert Thomas Velline in Fargo, North Dakota. He was a teen idol in the 1950s. According to Billboard magazine, Vee had 38 “Hot 100” chart hits, 10 of which reached the “Top 20.” Among those hits are Devil or Angel, Rubber Ball, More Than I Can Say, Take Good Care of My Baby, Run to Him, and The Night Has a Thousand Eyes. He appeared in the films Swingin’ Along, Play It Cool, Just for Fun, and C’mon, Let’s Live a Little.

1943–Economist, Beatrice Potter Webb, dies in Liphook, Hampshire, England, at age 85. She was a sociologist, socialist, labor historian, and social reformer. It was Webb who coined the term "collective bargaining." She was among the founders of the London School of Economics, and played a crucial role in forming the Fabian Society.

1944–Actress, Jill Clayburgh, is born in New York, New York. She appeared in the films The Wedding Party, Portnoy’s Complaint, The Terminal Man, Hustling, Gable and Lombard, Silver Streak, Semi-Tough, An Unmarried Woman, Starting Over, I’m Dancing as Fast as I Can, Naked in New York, and Rich in Love. She was married to screenwriter and playwright, David Rabe.

1945–German dictator, Adolf Hitler, and his wife of one day, Eva Braun, commit suicide in the sitting room of Hitler’s bunker in Berlin, Nazi Germany. Braun had bitten into a cyanide capsule and Hitler had shot himself in the right temple with his pistol. The corpses were carried up the stairs and through the bunker's emergency exit to the garden behind the Reich Chancellery, where they were burned. Hilter was 56, and Braun was 33. The German public was unaware of Braun's relationship with Hitler until after their deaths.

1945–Folksinger, Mimi Farina, is born Margarita Mimi Baez in Palo Alto, California. Her sister is folksinger, Joan Baez.

1946–King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden is born in Solna, Sweden.

1947–The Boulder Dam is renamed Hoover Dan in honor of Herbert Hoover.

1948–In Bogotá, Colombia, the Organization of American States is established.

1948–The U.S. conducts an atmospheric nuclear test at Enwetak.

1948–Actor, Perry (Firestone) King, is born in Alliance, Ohio. He appeared in the films Slaughterhouse-Five, The Possession of Joel Delaney, The Lords of Flatbush, The Wild Party, Mandingo, Lipstick, Andy Warhol's Bad, The Choirboys, and Switch.

1952–Edward G. Robinson, who had been suspected of being a Communist, gives his “I was duped” testimony before the House of Unamerican Activities Committee.

1952–Mr. Potato Head is the first toy advertised on American television. The simple toy brought hours of fun and creativity to the Baby Boom generation.

1953–Frank Sinatra teams up for the first time with arranger Nelson Riddle. Together, the two would record a number of unforgettable albums.

1953–A tornado kills 18 people in Warner Robins, Georgia.

1953–Merrill (Davis) Osmond, of The Osmond Brothers, is born in Ogden, Utah.

1954–Film director, (Elizabeth) Jane Campion, is born in Wellington, New Zealand. Her films include A Girl's Own Story, After Hours, Two Friends, Sweetie, An Angel at My Table, The Piano, Portrait of a Lady, and Holy Smoke!

1955–Element 101, Mendelevium, is announced.

1955–America is gripped by Davy Crockett insanity, as three versions of The Ballad of Davy Crockett are in the “Top 10,” and Baby Boomer children everywhere are sporting little coonskin caps.

1955–A chart topper: Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White by Perez Prado.

1956–Former Vice President and Democratic Senator, Alben Barkley, dies during a speech in Virginia. He collapses after proclaiming "I would rather be a servant in the house of the Lord than sit in the seats of the mighty."

1957–Elvis Presley records the soundtrack to his forthcoming film Jailhouse Rock.

1957–Astronaut, Duane G. Carey, is born Duane Gene Carey in St. Paul, Minnesota. He was selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in April 1996. In 2002, he served as the pilot of Columbia on STS-109, logging over 10 days in space.

1959–Actor, Paul (Michael) Gross, is born in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Hre is best known for the role of Constable Benton Fraser in the TV series Due South. He appeared in the films Cold Comfort, Married to It, Aspen Extreme, and 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea.

1959–Stephen (Joseph) Harper, 22nd Prime Minister of Canada, is born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

1961–K-19, the first Soviet nuclear submarine equipped with nuclear missiles, is commissioned.

1961–The first shuttle flights between Washington, D.C., Boston, and New York City, begin on Eastern Airlines.

1961–Assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, marries Marina Prusakova in Minsk, Russia.

1962–James Meredith becomes the first black to be admitted to the University of Mississippi.

1963–The Bristol Bus Boycott is held in Bristol, England,, to protest the Bristol Omnibus Company's refusal to employ Black or Asian bus crews.

1964–The Beatles receive a $140,000 royalty check for the use of their name on Beatles Chewing Gum. And LenMac Enterprises Ltd., a Beatles music publishing company, is formed.

1965–The Kinks begin their first U.K. tour. The Kinks were one of the hottest bands that emerged during the British Invasion of the 1960s. Considered the forerunners of punk rock, they had several major hits, including You Really Got Me, All Day and All of the Night, and Set Me Free.

1966–Novelist and folk singer, Richard Farina, dies in a motorcycle accident. He was returning from a launch party for his book Been Down So Long, It Looks Like Up To Me.

1966–The Church of Satan is established at the Black House in San Francisco, California.

1967–The Freedom of Expression Committee benefit is held at the Hullabaloo, in Hollywood, California.

1967–Actor, Steven Mackintosh, is born in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England. He appeared in the films Prick Up Your Ears, Memphis Belle, Princess Caraboo, Twelth Night, Different for Girls, Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels, and The Jacket.

1968–The Kaleidoscope opens in Los Angeles, California. The Jefferson Airplane headline the first concert at the ballroom.

1968–Organist, Al Kooper, announces that he's leaving Blood Sweat and Tears.

1968–The Cilla Black Show, featuring the theme song, Step Inside Love, written by Paul McCartney, debuts on the BBC, making Cilla the first English woman with her own TV show.

1970–U.S. troops invade Cambodia in an escalation of the increasingly unpopular Viet Nam war.

1970–Twiggs Lyndon, road manager with the Allman Brothers, is arrested on charges of murder, after stabbing a club manager over an alleged breach of contract.

1970–Actress, Inger Stevens, dies of acute barbiturate poisoning in Hollywood, California, at age 35. She appeared in the films Cry Terror!, The Buccaneer, The World, the Flesh and the Devil, The New Interns, A Guide for the Married Man, A Time for Killing, Firecreek, Madigan, 5 Card Stud, and Hang 'Em High.

1971–The 25th NBA Championship: The Milwaukee Bucks beat the Baltimore Bullets in 4 games.

1972–Actress, Gia Scala, dies from an accidental overdose of drugs and alcohol in Hollywood, California, at age 38. She appeared in the films The Price of Fear, The Garment Jungle, Don’t Go Near the Water, The Tunnel of Love, and The Guns of Navarone.

1973–In the wake of the Watergate scandal, President Richard Nixon announces the resignations of top aides H.R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, along with Attorney General, Richard G. Kleindienst, and White House counsel, John Dean.

1974–Actress, Agnes Moorehead, dies of uterine cancer in Rochester, Minnesota, at age 73. She is best known for the role of Endora on the TV sitcom Bewitched. She apppeared in the films Citizen Kane, The Magnificent Ambersons, The Big Street, Jane Erye, Dark Passage, Johnny Belinda, The Stratton Story, Show Boat, The Opposite Sex, Raintree County, The Tempest, Pollyanna, and How the West Was Won.

1975–In South Vietnam, President Minh announces an unconditional surrender to the Vietcong, ending the 20th century's longest conflict of war.

1975–Actor, Johnny Galecki, is born John Mark Galecki in Bree, Belgium. He is best known for the roles of David Healy on the sitcom Roseanne, and as Dr. Leonard Hofstadter in the TV series The Big Bang Theory. He appeared in the films A Night in the Life of Jimmy Reardon, Prancer, National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation, A Family Torn Apart, Without Consent, and Vanilla Sky.

1976–Keith Moon, drummer of The Who, reportedly pays several New York cab drivers $100 each. He tells them to block both ends of the street, and then proceeds to empty the contents of his hotel room onto the empty street below.

1976–Muhammad Ali defeats Jimmy Young in 15 rounds for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1980–Terrorists seize the Iranian Embassy in London, England.

1980–Juliana, Queen of the Netherlands, abdicates and Princess Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard becomes Queen.

1980–Luis Muñoz Marín, poet and politician, dies after suffering complications from a severe fever in San Juan, Puerto Rico, at age 82. His funeral became an island-wide event, dwarfing his own father's funeral in 1916, and was attended by tens of thousands of followers. He was the first Governor of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, spearheading an administration that engineered profound economic, political, and social reforms.

1982–The Bijon Setu massacre occurs in Calcutta, India.

1982–Actress, Kirsten (Caroline) Dunst, is born in Point Pleasant, New Jersey. She appeared in the films New York Stories, Greedy, Interview with the Vampire, Little Women, Jumanji, Wag the Dog, Spider-Man, Mona Lisa Smile, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, Marie Antoinette, Melancholia, On the Road, and Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues.

1982–Rock critic, Lester Bangs, dies of an accidental overdose of dextropropoxyphene, diazepam, and NyQuil in New York, New York, at age 33. He was a music journalist, author, and musician. Often cited during his lifetime as "America's Greatest Rock Critic," he wrote for Creem, Rolling Stone, The Village Voice, Penthouse, Playboy, and New Musical Express, and was known for his leading influence in rock music criticism.

1983–A chart topper: True by Spandau Ballet.

1983–George Balanchine, dancer, choreographer, and director, dies of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in New York, New York, at age 79. He co-founded the New York City Ballet.

1983–Bluesman, Muddy Waters, dies of a heart attack in Westmont, Illinois, at age 70. He is often considered the "father of modern Chicago blues." Muddy's influence is tremendous: not just on blues and rhythm and blues but on rock 'n' roll, hard rock, folk, jazz, and country. His use of amplification is often cited as the link between Delta blues and rock 'n' roll.

1985–France conducts a nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1988–The World Exposition, Expo 88, opens in Brisbane, Australia.

1988–Paul McCartney announces that the Soviet record company, Melodiya, will release an album of his covers of old rock and roll songs titled Choba B CCCP.

1988–Actor, Tom Hanks, marries actress, Rita Wilson.

1988–Astrologer, Carroll Righter, dies of prostate cancer in Santa Monica, Caslifornia, at age 88. He was known as the "astrologer to the stars." Among those who sought his advice were Arlene Dahl, Rhonda Fleming, Jane Withers, Joan Fontaine, Grace Kelly, and Ronald and Nancy Reagan. He wrote a syndicated daily advice column for 166 newspapers around the world.

1989–For the first time on record Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, goes through the entire month of April without a single thunderstorm.

1989–Italian film director, Sergio Leone, dies of a heart attack in Rome, Italy, at age 60. He is best known for his “Spagehtti Westerns”: A Fistful of Dollars, For a Few Dollars More, and The Good, the Bad and the Ugly.

1989–Bangja, Crown Princess Euimin of Korea, dies of cancer at Nakseon Hall, Changdeok Palace in Seoul, Korea, at age 87.

1989–Actor, Guy Williams, dies of a brain aneurysm in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at age 65. He starred in the TV shows Zorro and Lost in Space.

1990–American hostage, Frank Reed, is freed after four years in the hands of pro-Iranians.

1993–The World Wide Web is born at CERN.

1993–Virgin Radio broadcasts for the first time in Great Britain.

1993–During a tennis match between tennis players, Monica Seles and Magdalena Maleeva, Gunter Parche plunges a steak knife between Seles’ shoulder blades. She did not return to competitive tennis for over two years.

1994–Formula One racing driver, Roland Ratzenberger, is killed in a crash during the qualifying session of the San Marino Grand Prix at Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari outside Imola, Italy.

1995–President Bill Clinton becomes the first president to visit Northern Ireland.

1997–In London, England, Big Ben stops at 12:11 p.m. for 54 minutes.

1999–Cambodia joins the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) bringing its total members to 10.

1999–At the Kunstforum Lyz Art Gallery in Hamburg, Germany, Paul McCartney holds a press conference to launch his first exhibition of paintings, which will open at the gallery on May 1st. Paul’s abstract artwork, in oils and acrylic, include paintings of Linda McCartney, John Lennon, David Bowie, and the Queen of England.

2000–The canonization of Faustina Kowalska takes place in the presence of 200,000 people. The first Divine Mercy Sunday is celebrated worldwide.

2004–The U.S. media releases graphic photos of American soldiers abusing and sexually humiliating Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison.

2004–Michael Jackson is arraigned on child molestation charges, pleading not guilty to 10 different criminal counts, also including extortion and false imprisonment.

2007–Actor, Tom Poston, dies of respiratory failure in Los Angeles, California, at age 85. He is best known for ther role of George Utley on the sitcom Newhart. He had a recurring role on the TV shows On the Rocks, The Bob Newhart Show, Mork & Mindy, and Grace Under Fire. He appeared in the films Zotz!, Soldier in the Rain, Cold Turkey, The Happy Hooker, Rabbit Test, Carbon Copy, Krippendorf's Tribe, and The Story of Us.

2007–Zola Taylor, of The Platters, dies of pneumonia in Riverside, California, at age 69. She was the original female member of The Platters from 1954 to 1962, when the group produced most of their popular singles. She appeared with The Platters in the first rock'n'roll film Rock Around the Clock.

2008–Two skeletal remains found near Yekaterinburg, Russia, are confirmed by Russian scientists to be the remains of Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia, and Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna, one of his sisters.

2009–The United Kingdom formally ends combat operations in Iraq.

2009–The Chrysler automobile company files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

2009–Seven people are killed and 10 others are injured at a Queen's Day Parade in Apeldoorn, Netherlands, during an attempted assassination of Queen Beatrix.

2012–An overloaded ferry capsizes on the Brahmaputra River in India, killing at least 103 people.

2013–Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands abdicates and Willem-Alexander becomes King of the Netherlands.

2015–Singer, Ben E. King, dies of coronary problems in Hackensack, New Jersey, at age 76. He was one of the lead singers with The Drifters, who had hits with There Goes My Baby, This Magic Moment, and Save the Last Dance for Me. He had solo hits with Spanish Harlem and Stand By Me.

2017–Saeed Karimian, the founder and director of GEM TV (a Persian language network based in Dubai), is shot dead in Istanbul, Turkey, along with his Kuwaiti business partner. Karimian had previously been tried in absentia by a Tehran court and sentenced to six years in prison for spreading propaganda against Iran.

2017–Swiss mountain climber, Ueli Steck, dies in a mountaineering accident near Mount Everest.


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