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1992–Comedian, Benny Hill, dies of a heart attack in Teddington, London, England, at age 68. He starred in the BBC TV series The Benny Hill Show. It was one of the great success stories of television comedy, keeping Hill a star for nearly four decades, generating impressive revenues for Thames TV, and remaining a cult series in much of the world long after Hill's death.



121–Roman Emperor and philosopher, Marcus Aurelius, is born in Rome, Italy. He defended the Empire against the Germans and the Britons, was always lenient with political criminals, and tried to improve living conditions for the poor. He did persecute the Christians, but he also expressed with great beauty the Stoic philosophy.

689–Cadwalla, King of Wessex, dies of wounds he suffered while fighting on the Isle of Wight, at age 29.

888–Emperor Xizong of Tang dies in Chang'an, China, at age 26.

1248–Güyük Khan, Mongol ruler and 3rd Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, dies in Qum-Senggir, Xinjiang, at age 42. He was a grandson of Genghis Khan.

1303–The Sapienza University of Rome is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII.

1314–Pope Clement V dies in Roquemaure (Gard), Kingdom of France, at age 50.

1453–Three Genoese galleys and a Byzantine blockade runner fight their way through an Ottoman blockading fleet a few weeks before the fall of Constantinople.

1521–Zhengde, Emperor of China, dies after falling off his boat and contracting illness from the Grand Canal waters somewhere between Beijing and Hangzhou, China, at age 29.

1534–Jacques Cartier begins his voyage, in which he will discover Canada and Labrador.

1567–Elizabethan poet, Arthur Golding, finishes his translation of Ovid's Metamorphosis, which would be an important source-book for Renaissance and Neoclassical writers, including Shakespeare.

1633–Emperor Go-Komyo of Japan is born Tsuguhito in Japan.

1650–Fraudster and spy, William Bedloe, is born at Chepstow in Monmouthshire, England.

1653–Oliver Cromwell dissolves the Rump Parliament.

1657–Freedom of religion is granted to the Jews of New Amsterdam (present-day New York City).

1657–Admiral Robert Blake destroys a Spanish silver fleet under heavy fire at the Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife.

1689–Deposed monarch, James II of England, lays siege to Derry, in Northern Ireland.

1745–Philippe Pinel, founder of psychiatry, is born in Jonquières, France. He also made notable contributions to the classification of mental disorders.

1752–The Konbaung-Hanthawaddy War begins as a new phase in the Burmese Civil War.

1759–George Frederic Handel is buried in Westminster Abbey in London, England.

1769–Tribal leader, Chief Pontiac, is murdered near Cahokia, Illinois Country, at age 48. He was an Odawa War Chief who is noted for his role in Pontiac's War (1763-1766), an American Indian struggle against British military occupation of the Great Lakes region. It followed the British victory in the French and Indian War.

1770–Georgian King Erekle II abandoned by his Russian ally, Count Totleben, wins a victory over Ottoman forces at Aspindza.

1775–In the American Revolutionary War, the Siege of Boston, Massachusetts, begins, following the battles at Lexington and Concord.

1777–New York adopts a new constitution as an independent state.

1789–George Washington arrives at Grays Ferry, Philadelphia, while en route to Manhattan, New York, for his inauguration as President of the United States.

1792–France declares war against the "King of Hungary and Bohemia," which marks the beginning of French Revolutionary Wars.

1800–The Septinsular Republic is established.

1808–Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon III), Emperor of France (1852-1871), is born in Paris, French Empire. He was the first President of France, and the first to be elected by a direct popular vote. He remains the longest-serving French head of state since the French Revolution. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I.

1809–Two Austrian army corps in Bavaria are defeated by a First French Empire army, led by Napoleon, at the Battle of Abensberg. It is a four-day campaign that ends in a French victory.

1810–The Governor of Caracas declares independence from Spain.

1818–The case of Ashford v. Thornton ends, with Abraham Thornton allowed to go free rather than face a retrial for murder, after his demand for trial by battle is upheld.

1826–Major Gordon Laing becomes the first non-Muslim to enter Timbuktu.

1828–René Caillié becomes the second non-Muslim to enter, and the first to return from, Timbuktu.

1832–Hot Springs National Park, the first national park in America, is established by an act of the U.S. Congress.

1836–The Territory of Wisconsin is established.

1841–The first detective story, Edgar Allan Poe's Murders in the Rue Morgue, is published.

1859–Charles Dickens's novel, A Tale of Two Cities, is published.

1861–Robert E. Lee resigns his commission in the U.S. Army in order to command the forces of the state of Virginia.

1862–Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard complete the experiment falsifying the theory of spontaneous generation.

1864–Symbolist painter, Odilon Redon, is born Bertrand-Jean Redon in Bordeaux, France. During his early years as an artist, Redon's works were described as "a synthesis of nightmares and dreams," as they contained dark, fantastical figures from the artist's own imagination.

1865–Astronomer, Angelo Secchi, demonstrates the Secchi disk that measures water clarity aboard Pope Pius IX's yacht, the L'Immaculata Concezion.

1871–The Civil Rights Act of 1871 becomes law.

1871–Engineer, Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, is born in Liptovsky Mikulas, Kingdom of Hungary, Austria-Hungary. He is best known for development of the mechanical pencil (then called an "automatic pencil") and the first solid-ink fountain pen.

1872–The San Francisco Bar Association is founded.

1876–The April Uprising begins. Its suppression shocks European opinion, and Bulgarian independence becomes a condition for ending the Russo-Turkish War.

1881–Architect, William Burges, dies at The Tower House, Melbury Road, Kensington, England, at age 53. He was highly revered as a sculptor, and designer of furniture, jewelry, and stained glass. Burges caught a chill while on a tour of works at Cardiff, and by the time he reached London, he was partially paralyzed. He was buried in the tomb he designed for his mother at West Norwood, London, England.

1884–Pope Leo XIII publishes the encyclical Humanum genus.

1887–Politician, Muhammad Sharif Pasha, dies in Graz, Austria-Hungary, at age 61. He was the second Prime Minister of Egypt.

1888–It is reported that 246 people are killed by hail in Moradabad, India.

1889–Dictator, Adolf Hitler is born in Braunau am Inn, Austria-Hungary. He was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. As dictator of Nazi Germany, he initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939. He was a central figure of the Holocaust.

1893–Silent screen actor, Harold (Clayton) Lloyd, Sr., is born in Burchard, Nebraska. Lloyd ranks alongside Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton as one of the most popular and influential film comedians of the silent film era. He made nearly 200 comedy films, both silent and "talkies," between 1914 and 1947.

1893–Surrealist painter, sculptor, and ceramicist, Joan Miró, is born Joan Miró i Ferrà in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Miró's early works showed a more painterly quality than the hard-edged style of his mature works. The transition of his style began to develop in the 1920s, as precise elements coalesced into symbols which would appear repeatedly in his future work. Cubist influences could be seen, as the Modernist theories he absorbed in Paris, France, also informed his new work. Though thought of as primarily a surrealist painter, Miro was influenced by numerous schools, including Dada and Cubism, rejecting the labels of any artistic movement, which led André Breton to describe him as "the most Surrealist of us all."

1893–Super-centenarian, Edna Parker, is born Edna Ruth Scott on a farm in Shelby County, Indiana. She would live to the age of 115 years (and 220 days). She was the 20th verified, undisputed super-centenarian to reach the age of 115.

1898–The U.S. Assay Office opens in Deadwood, South Dakota.

1898–President William McKinley signs a joint resolution to U.S. Congress for declaration of War against Spain, beginning the Spanish-American War.

1898–Harvey (Samuel) Firestone, Jr., U.S. tire manufacturer, is born in Chicago, Illinois. He took over the leadership of the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company in 1941, and helped establish the company's supply and service stores, guiding its operations during World War II.

1902–Scientists, Marie and Pierre Curie, isolate the radioactive element, radium.

1903–The 7th Boston Marathon is won by John Lorden of Massachusetts, with a time of 2:41:29.

1904–The Louisiana Purchase Exposition opens in St. Louis, Missouri.

1904–Actor, Bruce Cabot, is born Etienne Pelissier Jacques de Bujac in Carlsbad, New Mexico. He appeared in the films King Kong, Fury, Dodge City, Susan and God, Angel and the Badman, Fancy Pants, The Quiet American, The Sheriff of Fractured Jaw, Hatari!, McLintock!, In Harm’s Way, The Green Berets, and Chisum.

1908–The 12th Boston Marathon is won by Tom Morrissey of New York, with a time of 2:25:43.

1908–Vibraphone (vibes) player, Lionel (Leo) Hampton, is born in Louisville, Kentucky. Hampton worked with jazz musicians Louis Armstrong, Benny Goodman, Buddy Rich, Charlie Parker, Charles Mingus, and Quincy Jones.

1912–Writer, Bram Stoker, dies in London, England, at age 64. He wrote the Gothic horror novel, Dracula.

1914–Nineteen men, women, and children die in the Ludlow Massacre during a Colorado coal-miner's strike.

1914–The 18th Boston Marathon is won by James Duffy of Canada, with a time of 2:25:01.

1915–Actress, Evelyn Scott, is born in Brockton, Massachusetts. She is best known for the role of Ada Jacks on the popular primetime soap opera Peyton Place. Scott started out as a disc jockey in Los Angeles, California, the first woman in that role, spinning records for KMPC's early morning "Wake-Up" show, and then became a singing DJ on KHJ's similar "Rise and Shine" morning program. She appeared in the films Wicked Woman, Back from the Dead, The Green-Eyed Blonde, I Want to Live!, and Peyton Place: The Next Generation.

1916–The Chicago Cubs play their first game at Weeghman Park (present-day Wrigley Field), defeating the Cincinnati Reds 7-6 in 11 innings.

1918–Manfred von Richthofen, aka The Red Baron, shoots down his 79th and 80th victims marking his final victories before his death the following day.

1918–Karl F. Braun, co-developer of wireless telegraphy, dies in Brooklyn, New York, at age 67. Braun contributed significantly to the development of radio and television technology: he shared with Guglielmo Marconi the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics.

1920–The Balfour Declaration is recognized, making Palestine a British Mandate.

1920–Tornadoes kill 219 people in Alabama and Mississippi.

1920–The VII Olympic Games open in Antwerp, Belgium.

1922–The Soviet government creates South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within Georgian SSR.

1923–Mother Mary Angelica of the Annunciation is born Rita Antoinette Rizzo in Canton, Ohio. She was an American Franciscan nun best known as a television personality and the founder of the internationally broadcast cable TV and radio networks Eternal Word Television Network (EWTN).

1923–Latin bandleader, Tito Puente, is born Ernesto Antonio Puente in Harlem, New York. He is best known for his dance-oriented mambo and Latin jazz compositions that endured over his 50-year career.

1924–Actress, Nina Foch, is born Nina Consuelo Maud Fock in Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands. She appeared in the films Cry of the Werewolf, Strange Affair, The Dark Past, An American in Paris, Scaramouche, Executive Suite, The Ten Commandments, Spartacus, Such Good Friends, Mahogany, Rich and Famous, and Hush. She was married to TV host, James Lipton.

1925–Actress, Elena (Amgela) Verdugo, is born in Paso Robles, California. She is best known for the role of nurse Consuelo Lopez in the TV series Marcus Welby, M.D. She appeared in the films House of Frankenstein, How Sweet It Is!, and Angel in my Pocket.

1925–The 29th Boston Marathon is won by Charles Mellor of Illinois, with a time of 2:33:00.

1926–Western Electric and Warner Bros. announce Vitaphone, a process to add sound to film.

1931–The 35th Boston Marathon is won by Jim Henigan of Massachusetts, with a time of 2:46:45.

1932–Singer, Dicky Doo, of Dicky Doo & The Don’ts, is born Gerry Granahan in Pittston, Pennsylvania. He is a songwriter and record producer, best known for his work in the 1950s and 1960s. He had hits with No Chemise Please and Click Clack. Later in his career, Granahan worked in the music industry, serving as vice president of Dot Records and Paramount Records. He still performs as Dicky Doo and the Don'ts Featuring Gerry Granahan.

1935–Your Lucky Hit Parade becomes the first radio record-charting program. It's hosted by Warren Hill and run until 1959.

1935–A 7.1 earthquake hits the island of Formosa, causing 3,280 deaths.

1935–Fashion designer, Lady Lucy Duff Gordon, dies of breast cancer in a nursing home in Putney, London, England, at age 71. Lucile, the first British-based designer to achieve international acclaim, was a widely acknowledged innovator in couture styles. She originated the "mannequin parade," a precursor to the modern fashion show, and trained the first professional models.

1936–The 40th Boston Marathon is won by Ellison Brown of Rhode Island, with a time of 2:33:40.

1937–Actor, George (Hosato) Takei, is born in Los Angeles, California. He is best known for the role of Hikaru Sulu on the original Star Trek TV series and the films from the Star Trek franchise. He appeared in the films Rodan, Walk Don’t Run, and The Green Berets.

1939–The New York World's Fair opens.

1939–Adolf Hitler's 50th birthday is celebrated as a national holiday in Nazi Germany.

1939–Billie Holiday records the first civil rights song, Strange Fruit.

1939–Writer, Peter Soyer Beagle, is born in New York, New York. He is best known for the fantasy book The Last Unicorn, which was made into an animated film of the same name in 1982.

1939–Singer, Johnny Tillotson, is born in Jacksonville, Florida. He enjoyed his greatest success in the early 1960s, when he scored nine “Top Ten” hits on the pop, country, and adult contemporary Billboard charts, including Poetry In Motion and It Keeps Right On a-Hurtin'.

1940–The electron microscope is demonstrated by RCA in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1940–Actor, James Gammon, is born in Newman, Illinois. He is best known as Coach Lou Brown in the films Major League and Major League II, which portrayed a fictitious version of the Cleveland Indians. He appeared in the films Cool Hand Luke, Journey to Shiloh, A Man Called Horse, Macon County Line, The Greatest, Urban Cowboy, Any Which Way You Can, Vision Quest, Silverado, Made in Heaven, Ironweed, The Milagro Beanfield War, Leaving Normal, CrissCross, Wyatt Earp, Wild Bill, and Cold Mountain.

1941–Actor, Ryan O'Neal, is born Charles Patrick Ryan O'Neal in Los Angeles, California. He is best known for the role of Rodney Harrington on the TV series Peyton Place (in 501 episodes). He appeared in the films The Big Bounce, The Games, Love Story, Wild Rovers, What’s Up, Doc?, The Thief Who Came to Dinner, Paper Moon, Barry Lyndon, Nickelodeon, A Bridge Too Far, and The Driver. He was married to actresses, Joanna Moore and Leigh Taylor-Young. He also had a long-term relationship with actress, Farrah Fawcett, until her death in 2009. His father was novelist-screenwriter, Charles O'Neal. His children are Tatum O’Neal, Griffin O'Neal, Patrick O'Neal, and Redmond O'Neal.

1943–Model, Edie Sedgwick, is born in Santa Barbara, California.

1945–Soviet troops enter Berlin, Germany; the U.S. 7th Army captures Nuremberg, Germany; and U.S. troops capture Leipzig, Germany, only to later cede the city to the Soviet Union.

1945–Adolf Hitler makes his last trip above ground to award Iron Crosses to boy soldiers of the Hitler Youth.

1945–Twenty Jewish children, used in medical experiments at Neuengamme, are killed in the basement of the Bullenhuser Damm school.

1945–Jimmy Winston, organist with Small Faces, is born James Edward Winston Langwith in Stratford, London, England.

1946–The League of Nations officially dissolves, giving most of its power to the United Nations.

1946–The 50th Boston Marathon is won by Stylianos Kyriakides of Greece, with a time of 2:29:27.

1947–Record producer and engineer, Ken Scott, is born in London, England. He is best known for being one of the five main engineers for The Beatles. He also worked with Elton John, Pink Floyd, Procol Harum, Mahavishnu Orchestra, Duran Duran, The Jeff Beck Group, David Bowie, Supertramp, Devo, Kansas, and The Tubes. Scott began working at EMI Recording Studios (later renamed Abbey Road Studios) on January 27, 1964, at the age of 16. He received the traditional EMI studio training under veteran engineers Malcolm Addey and Norman Smith. His first job was in the tape library, and within six months he was promoted to second engineer (known then as a "button pusher"), where his first session was on side two of The Beatles album A Hard Day’s Night.

1948–Walter P. Reuther, President of United Auto Workers, is shot and wounded at his home in Detroit, Michigan.

1949–Jockey, Willie Shoemaker, wins his first race, in Albany, California.

1949–Actress, Veronica Cartwright, is born in Bristol, England. She appeared in the films The Children’s Hour, The Birds, Spencer’s Mountain, Inserts, Goin’ South, Invasion of the Body Snatchers, Alien, Nightmares, The Right Stuff, Wisdom, The Witches of Eastwick, A Slipping-Down Life, Twisted, and Kinsey. Her younger sister is child actress, Angela Cartwright.

1949–Actress, Jessica (Phyllis) Lange, is born in Cloquet, Minnesota. She appeared in the films King Kong, All That Jazz, The Postman Always Rings Twice, Tootsie, Frances, Country, Sweet Dreams, Crimes of the Heart, Men Don’t Leave, Cape Fear, Night and the City, Blue Sky, Losing Isaiah, Hush, and Broken Flowers.

1949–Phil Spector's father, Benjamin, commits suicide over mounting debt, prompting his son to write the song, To Know Him Is To Love Him, a decade later for The Teddy Bears. The title was inspired by the writing on Benjamin Spector's headstone.

1951–The U.S. conducts an atmospheric nuclear test at Enwetak.

1951–Singer, Luther Vandross, is born Luther Ronzoni Vandross, Jr. in New York, New York. During his career, Vandross sold over 25 million records worldwide. His hit songs include Never Too Much, Here and Now, Any Love, Power of Love/Love Power, I Can Make It Better and For You to Love.

1952–The tankers Esso Suez and Esso Greensboro crash in a thick fog off the coast of Morgan City, Louisiana. Only five of the Greensboro's crew survive after the ship bursts into flame.

1953–The 57th Boston Marathon is won by Keizo Yamada of Japan, with a time of 2:18:51.

1957–Elvis Presley tops the chart with All Shook Up. Otis Blackwell allegedly wrote the song after Shalimar Music executive, Al Stanton, challenged him to come up with a tune in the amount of time it would take Stanton to drink a Pepsi.

1957–The 61st Boston Marathon is won by John J. Kelley of Connecticut, with a time of 2:20:05.

1958–The Stanley Cup: The Montreal Canadiens beat the Boston Bruins 4 games to 2.

1959–The 63rd Boston Marathon is won by Eino Oksanen of Finland, with a time of 2:22:42.

1959–Actor, Clint Howard, is born in Burbank, California. He is best known for his starring role in the TV series Gentle Ben. He appeared in the films An Eye for an Eye, The Wild Country, East My Dust!, Grand Theft Auto, I Never Promised You a Rose Garden, Rock 'n' Roll High School, Night Shift, Splash, Cocoon, Gung Ho, Parenthood, Backdraft, Far and Away, Apollo 13, Unhook the Stars, That Thing You Do!, Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery, and EDtv. He is the younger brother of actor, Ron Howard. His father is actor, Rance Howard.

1961–The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) gives approval for FM stereo broadcasting.

1962–Jesse G. Vincent, the engineer who designed the first V-12 engine, dies at age 82.

1963–Ricky Nelson marries his first wife, Kris Harmon, in Los Angeles, California. Kris is the daughter of college football legend, Tom Harmon, and sister of actor, Mark Harmon.

1964–BBC Two launches with a power cut because of a fire at Battersea Power Station in South West London, England.

1964–The Elvis Presley movie, Viva Las Vegas, premieres. It is one of the favorites among his many fans. Sex kitten, Ann-Margret co-stars with the King, and there is a special chemistry between the two stars.

1964–The 68th Boston Marathon is won by Aurele Vandendriessche of Belgium, with a time of 2:19:59.

1964–Actor, Crispin (Hellion) Glover, is born in New York, New York. He appeared in the films My Tutor, Racing with the Moon, Teachers, Back to the Future, At Close Range, River’s Edge, Twister, Wild at Heart, The Doors, Even Cowgirls Get the Blues, What’s Eating Gilbert Grape, and Willard.

1964–Actor, Andy Serkis, is born Andrew Clement Serkis in Ruislip, Middlesex, England. He appeared in the films Prince of Jutland, Career Girls, The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, Deathwatch, 13 Going on 30, The Prestige, Sex & Drugs & Rock & Roll, Star Wars: The Force Awakens, and War for the Planet of the Apes.

1967–The U.S. begins the bombing of the harbor of Haiphong in North Vietnam.

1967–The U.S. Surveyor 3 lands on the Moon.

1967–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.

1968–Pierre Elliott Trudeau is sworn in as Prime Minister of Canada. His administration lasted from 1968-1979 and 1980-1984.

1968–English politician, Enoch Powell, makes his controversial Rivers of Blood speech.

1968–Apple Music runs ads soliciting tapes from unknown artists, and a flood of submissions follows. Financial grants are given to many applicants, often with little regard to merit. John Lennon hires an astrologer to consult the I Ching Book of Changes when making business decisions. Overall, Apple's music division will turn out to be relatively successful, sponsoring artists such as Badfinger, James Taylor, Mary Hopkin, Jackie Lomax, Yoko Ono, Plastic Ono Band, Ravi Shankar, David Peel, and Elephant's Memory.

1969–The L.A. Free Festival in Venice, California, ends in violence before it really begins, with many injuries and 117 arrests. The trouble starts when police chase one youth through the crowd on the beach. When they cuff him, the crowd starts chanting “pig, pig, pig,” a riot ensues, and none of the bands scheduled to play are allowed to appear.

1970–The New York Times reports that certain Catholic and Protestant youth groups have adopted the Beatles' Yellow Submarine as a religious symbol. Oddly enough, in the animated film, the Yellow Sub was an iconic symbol of good vs. evil.

1970–The 74th Boston Marathon is won by Ron Hill of Great Britain, with a time of 2:10:30. He sets a new marathon record.

1971–The U.S. Supreme Court upholds the use of busing to achieve racial integration in public schools.

1972–Apollo 16 lands on the Moon.

1972–Actress, Carmen Electra, is born Tara Leigh Patrick in Sharonville, Ohio. She appeared in the films American Vampire, Starstruck, Scary Movie, Perfume, and Starsky & Hutch. She was married to basketball player, Dennis Rodman.

1973–Canadian ANIK A2 becomes the first commercial satellite in orbit.

1973–Author, Julie Powell, is born in Austin, Texas. She is best known for her book Julie & Julia: 365 Days, 524 Recipes, 1 Tiny Apartment Kitchen. A film adaptation directed by Nora Ephron, titled Julie & Julia, was released August 7, 2009. The film was based on both Powell's book and Julia Child's autobiography My Life in France.

1976–Actor, Joey Lawrence, is born Joseph Lawrence Mignogna, Jr. in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He is best known for his roles on the TV shows Gimme a Break! and Blossom. He appeared in ther films Summer Rental, Radioland Murders, and Do You Wanna Know a Secret?

1978–Korean Air Lines Flight 902 is shot down by the Soviet Union.

1980–At Cold Spring Harbor, John Lennon records his day-to-day activities on his newly acquired video camera. These include playing with his young son, Sean, having lunch with Yoko on the lawn overlooking the sea, and strumming his guitar. To the camera, John records two versions of Dear Yoko, the second being re-recorded after he discovered on playback that he needed to put a light on.

1981–One time member of The Mamas and The Papas, John Phillips, is put behind bars in Los Angeles, California, after pleading guilty to drug possession charges. His five-year sentence will be suspended after 30 days, in exchange for 250 hours of community service.

1981–The 85th Boston Marathon is won by Toshihiko Seko of Japan, with a time of 2:09:26.

1981–The 10th Boston Women's Marathon is won by Allison Roe of New Zealand, with a time of 2:26:46.

1982–A section of New York's Central Park, partly funded by Yoko Ono, is officially dedicated as "Strawberry Fields," in honor of John Lennon.

1982–Archibald MacLeish, poet, playwright, and lawyer, dies in Boston, Massachusetts, at age 89. He served as the Librarian of Congress. He also assisted with the development of the new "Research and Analysis Branch" of the Office of Strategic Services, the precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

1983–President Ronald Reagan signs a $165 billion bailout for Social Security.

1985–The Firestone World Bowling Tournament of Champions is won by Mark Williams.

1986–Pianist, Vladimir Horowitz, plays in Russia for the first time in 66 years; that is when he left the country as a young man.

1986–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1987–The 91st Boston Marathon is won by Toshihiko Seko of Japan, with a time of 2:11:50.

1987–16th Boston Women's Marathon is won by Rosa Mota of Portugal, with a time of 2:25:21.

1991–Musician, Steve Marriott, dies in a fire at his home in Arkesden, Essex, England, at age 44. He was the frontman of two notable rock and roll bands, spanning over two decades: Small Faces and Humble Pie.

1991–Film director, Don Siegel, dies of cancer in Nipomo, California, at age 78. His films include The Verdict, The Big Steal, Riot in Cell Block 11, Invasion of the Body Snatchers, Crime in the Streets, Houng-Dog Man, Flaming Star, Hell is for Heroes, Coogan’s Bluff, Madigan, Two Mules for Sister Sara, The Beguiled, Dirty Harry, The Shootist, and Escape from Alcatraz.

1992–Elton John, Guns N' Roses, Roger Daltrey, Liza Minnelli, David Bowie, George Michael, Def Leppard, and Spinal Tap perform at a memorial concert for Queen singer, Freddie Mercury, in London, England.

1992–The 43-minute Japanese children’s program Tsukai Ningen-Den (Dashing Life Stories) is broadcast. It tells the story of the life of John Lennon through pictures and archive film clips. Included is some rare video footage of John, Yoko, and Sean visiting Japan in August 1978, and the first ever public screening of the presumed destroyed Double Fantasy video footage (although only Yoko was shown, there was no footage of John). This footage, directed by New Yorker, Jay Dubin, was recorded back in August 1980, on one-inch videotape using two cameras. Once the five-day sessions had been concluded, the video master tapes were handed over to two of Yoko’s bodyguards before copies could be made. Sources close to Yoko Ono say that the complete Double Fantasy video footage does exist in her basement archives at the Dakota, but it is filed as “untouchable.”

1992–Superstar, Madonna, signs a $60-million deal with Time Warner.

1992–The 96th Boston Marathon is won by Ibrahim Hussein of Kenya, with a time of 2:08:14.

1992–The 21st Boston Women's Marathon is won by Olga Markova of Russia, with a time of 2:23:43.

1992–Comedian, Benny Hill, dies of a heart attack in Teddington, London, England, at age 68. He starred in the BBC TV series The Benny Hill Show. It was one of the great success stories of television comedy, keeping Hill a star for nearly four decades, generating impressive revenues for Thames TV, and remaining a cult series in much of the world long after Hill's death.

1992–Bluesman, Johnny Shines, dies in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, at age 76.

1993–Uranus passes Neptune (it happens once every 171 years).

1993–Actor, Cantinflas, dies of lung cancer in Mexico City, Mexico, at age 81. His funeral was a national event, lasting three days. To audiences in the United States, he is best known for his appearance in Around the World in 80 Days. He also appeared in the films The Magician, The Genius, I Am a Fugitive, The Three Musketeers, Pepe, and The Great Sex War.

1996–The model for the human boy in the "Winnie-the-Pooh" books, Christopher Robin Milne, dies in his sleep at age 75. He was the son of author, A.A. Milne.

1998–The German terrorist group, Red Army Faction, announces their dissolution after 28 years.

1998–Mexico's greatest poet, writer, and critic, Octavio Paz, dies in Mexico City, Mexico. Paz, a prolific writer, is best known for two of his earlier works: the book-length essay The Labyrinth of Solitude and the poem “Sun Stone.”

1999–The Columbine High School massacre leaves 15 people (including the two gunmen) dead and 24 others wounded, after students, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, open fire in Jefferson County, Colorado.

1999–The Disney movie, A Bug's Life, is the first DVD to be transferred directly from the digital source, making it the first 100% digital DVD.

1999–Singer-songwriter, Billy Joel, announces his retirement from touring and recording pop music at his concert at The Meadowlands in New Jersey. He would eventually return to performing.

1999–Ventriloquist, Senor Wences, dies in New York, New York, at age 103. He was quite popular in the 1950s and 1960s, due to his frequent appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show.

2000–Plopsaland De Panne opens in De Panne, West-Vlaanderen, Belgium. The areas of the amusement park are: Gnome Plop garden, Castle, Pirate, Anubis, Wizzy and Woppy, and Spring. The park has five roller coasters, one of them the oldest in Belgium.

2007–Armed with a handgun, William Phillips barricades himself in NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, before killing a male hostage and himself.

2008–Danica Patrick wins the Indy Japan 300 becoming the first female driver in history to win an Indy car race.

2009–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: The New York Times for its masterful, groundbreaking coverage of America’s deepening military and political challenges in Afghanistan and Pakistan; Fiction: Olive Kitteridge by Elizabeth Strout (Random House); Drama: Ruined by Lynn Nottage (TCG); Non-Fiction: Slavery by Another Name–The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II by Douglas A. Blackmon (Doubleday); History: The Hemingses of Monticello–An American Family by Annette Gordon-Reed (W.W. Norton & Company); Biography or Autobiography: American Lion–Andrew Jackson in the White House by Jon Meacham (Random House); Poetry: The Shadow of Sirius by W.S. Merwin (Copper Canyon Press); Photography: Patrick Farrell, of The Miami Herald, for his impeccably composed images of despair after Hurricane Ike and other lethal storms caused a humanitarian disaster in Haiti; Music: Double Sextet by Steve Reich (Boosey & Hawkes).

2010–An explosion and fire destroys the Deepwater Horizon oil rig 40 miles off the Louisiana coast in the Gulf of Mexico, killing 11 men. The subsequent oil spill (over 200 million gallons) is the largest marine oil spill and environmental disaster in U.S. history.

2011–Screenwriter, Madelyn Pugh, dies in Bel Air, California, at age 90. She was a television writer who became known in the 1950s for her work on the sitcom I Love Lucy. Pugh and Bob Carroll, Jr. are credited with helping create the “Lucy” character, which Lucille Ball played in one form or another for over 40 years. The pair also wrote episodes for The Lucy Show, Here's Lucy, The Lucille Ball-Desi Arnaz Show (aka The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour), and Ball's final series Life With Lucy.

2012–A plane crashes in a residential area near the Benazir Bhutto International Airport in Islamabad, Pakistan, killing 127 people.

2013–A 7.0 earthquake strikes Lushan County, China, killing 193 people and injuring 11,876 others.

2013–Giorgio Napolitano is re-elected President of Italy.

2013–The deadliest avalanche to occur in Colorado in more than 40 years kills five snowboarders at Loveland Pass. A sixth snowboarder survives.

2013–Child actress, Deanna Durbin, dies in Neauphle-le-Château, France, at age 91. Durbin made her feature film debut at the age of 15 in the film Three Smart Girls. She and Mickey Rooney were given miniature Academy Awards for "significant contribution in bringing to the screen the spirit and personification of youth." Durbin retired from acting and singing in 1949, and withdrew from public life.

2014–Boxer, Rubin "Hurricane" Carter, dies of prostate cancer in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, at age 76. His murder convictions for a wrongfully convicted triple homicide were overturned after 19 years in prison. Denzel Washington portrayed Carter in the 1999 film The Hurricane.

2015–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: The Seattle Times staff; Fiction: All the Light We Cannot See by Anthony Doerr (Scribner); Drama: Between Riverside and Crazy by Stephen Adly Guirgis; Non-Fiction: The Sixth Extinction–An Unnatural History by Elizabeth Kolbert (Henry Holt); History: Encounters at the Heart of the World–A History of the Mandan People by Elizabeth A. Fenn (Hill and Wang); Biography or Autobiography: The Pope and Mussolini–The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe by David I. Kertzer (Random House); Poetry: Digest by Gregory Pardlo (Four Way Books); Photography: Daniel Berehulak, freelance photographer for The New York Times; Music: No award given.

2015–Ten people are killed in a bomb attack on a convoy carrying food supplies to a United Nations compound in Garowe, in the Somali region of Puntland.

2016–The state of Utah declares pornography a "public health risk" in a move Governor Gary Herbert says is to "protect our families and our young people." The bill, signed by the governor, does not ban pornography in the state, but does call for greater "efforts to prevent pornography exposure and addiction."

2016–In a letter to the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ), the U.S. Department of Justice announces it is opening a criminal investigation into tax avoidance schemes exposed by the “Panama Papers,” with U.S. attorney, Preet Bharara, asking the ICIJ for help.

2016–Film director, Guy Hamilton, dies at his home in Majorca, Spain, at age 93. His films include the James Bond features Goldfinger, Diamonds Are Forever, Live and Let Die, and The Man with the Golden Gun. He also directed The Intruder, The Party’s Over, Force 10 from Navarone, The Mirror Crack'd, and Evil Under the Sun.

2017–General Motors halts production in Venezuela after the government seizes the company’s manufacturing plants.

2017–Tesla Motors has announced the recall of 50,000 Tesla Model S and Tesla Model X cars due to a "brake issue."

2017–Australia adds stricter requirements to its citizenship application process, including harder tests on English language skills and the requirement that a migrant be able to demonstrate "Australian values."

2017–The Supreme Court of Russia labels Jehovah's Witnesses as "extremists," banning the organization.

-2017–China launches its first cargo spacecraft, the Tianzhou 1, carried by a Long March 7 rocket.

2017–Seven people are killed and at least 30 others are hospitalized, when a high tension wire falls on fans electrocuting them while they are watching a Manchester United match in Calabar, Nigeria.

2017–One policeman is killed and another is injured in a terrorist shooting on the Champs-Élysées in central Paris, France. The gunman is shot dead.

2017–Singer and actor, Cuba Gooding, Sr., dies of a suspected drug overdose in Woodland Hills, California, at age 72. He was the lead singer of the soul group, The Main Ingredient, whose biggest hit was Everybody Plays the Fool. His son is actor, Cuba Gooding, Jr.


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