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1983–Christmas Humphreys, lawyer, writer and Buddhist, dies at age 82. In 1924, he founded what became the London Buddhist Society, which was to have a seminal influence on the growth of the Buddhist tradition in Britain. His former home in St. John's Wood, London, England, is now a Buddhist temple.

548–Vietnam Emperor, Ly Nam De, dies. He was the founder of the Early Ly dynasty.

814–Bulgarian ruler, Krum the Fearsome, dies in Bulgaria. Krum is remembered for instituting the first known written Bulgarian law code, which ensured subsidies to beggars and state protection to all poor Bulgarians.

945–Hugh of Provence abdicates the throne in favor of his son, Lothair II, who is acclaimed sole King of Italy.

1111–Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

1204–Constantinople falls to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade, temporarily ending the Byzantine Empire.

1229–Louis II, Duke of Bavaria, is born Ludwig II der Strenge, Herzog von Bayern in Heidelberg, Germany.

1275–Eleanor of England dies as a nun at Montargis Abbey in France, at age 60.

1387–A party of 29 pilgrims assembles at the Tabard Inn in Southwark, England, preparing to travel to the shrine of Thomas Becket in Canterbury. After supper, the host proposes that they enliven their journey by telling stories. The following morning the tellers of Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales begin their journey.

1506–Priest and theologian, Peter Faber, is born in Villaret, Duchy of Savoy, Holy Roman Empire. He co-founded the Society of Jesus.

1519–Catherine de' Medici, Italian-French wife of Henry II of France, is born Caterina Maria Romula di Lorenzo de' Medici in Florence, Republic of Florence. As the mother of three sons who became kings of France during her lifetime, she had extensive influence in the political life of France. Her sons were Kings Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III.

1570–Guy Fawkes, English Catholic conspirator, is born in York, England. Fawkes became synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot, the failure of which has been commemorated in Britain since November 5, 1605. His effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, commonly accompanied by a fireworks display.

1576–James Burbage leases land in St. Leonard's Parish, Shoreditch, just outside London, England. There he will build the Rose Theater, the predecessor to the Globe Theater.

1598–Henry IV of France issues the Edict of Nantes, allowing freedom of religion to the Huguenots.

1612–Miyamoto Musashi defeats Sasaki Kojiroat Funajima island.

1613–Samuel Argall captures Native American Princess, Pocahontas, in Passapatanzy, Virginia, to ransom her for some English prisoners held by her father. She is brought to Henricus as a hostage.

1635–Ottoman Prince, Fakhr-al-Din II, is executed at the Yedikule (Seven Towers) prison in Istanbul, Ottoman Empire, at age 63.

1668–John Dryden becomes the first English Poet Laureate.

1699–Guru Gobind Singh, the Tenth Sikh Guru, creates Khalsa at Anandpur Sahib, Punjab.

1732–Politician, Frederick North, is born in Piccadilly, Middlesex, England. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He led Great Britain through most of the American War of Independence.

1742–The Messiah, by George Frideric Handel, is first performed at the New Music Hall on Fishamble Street in Dublin, Ireland.

1743–Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States (1801-1809), is born in Shadwell, Colony of Virginia, British America. He was an American Founding Father who was principal author of the Declaration of Independence. He became the U.S. Minister to France in May 1785, and subsequently the nation's first Secretary of State in 1790-1793, under President George Washington. Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System. As a visionary, Jefferson made the Lousiana Purchase, increasing the size and growth of America. Among his many inventions, is the swivel chair, the first of which he created and used to write much of the Declaration of Independence.

1771–Richard Trevithick, inventor of the steam engine and the steam locomotive, is born in Tregajorran, Cornwall, England.

1777–During the American Revolutionary War, American forces are ambushed and defeated in the Battle of Bound Brook, New Jersey.

1796–The first elephant is brought to America from Bengal, India.

1808–William Henry Lane perfects the tap dance.

1825–Politician, Thomas D'Arcy McGee, is born Thomas D'Arcy Etienne Hughes McGee in Carlingford, Ireland. He was long associated with The Nation, the Young Ireland political movement publication calling for the study of Irish history and the revival of the Irish language.

1829–The British Parliament grants freedom of religion to Roman Catholics.

1845–Victor Hugo is made a peer of France.

1849–Lajos Kossuth presents the Hungarian Declaration of Independence in a closed session of the National Assembly, and Hungary becomes a republic.

1851–Occultist and theosophist, William Quan Judge, is born in Dublin, Ireland. He was a mystic, esotericist, and one of the founders of the original Theosophical Society. Like Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcott, he stayed in the organization while others left. When Blavatsky and Olcott left America, they left Theosophy in North America in Judge's hands. Judge would later write that the objects of the Theosophical Society had been given to Olcott by the “Masters” before the meeting at which they were adopted.

1852–Retail pioneer, F.W. Woolworth, is born Frank Winfield Woolworth in Rodman, New York. He was the founder of F. W. Woolworth Company and the operator of variety stores known as "Five-and-Dimes" (5- and 10-cent stores) or dimestores, which featured a low-priced selection of merchandise. He pioneered the practice of buying merchandise directly from manufacturers and fixing the selling prices on items. He was also the first to use self-service display cases, so customers could examine what they wanted to buy without the help of a sales clerk. In 1911, the F.W. Woolworth Company was incorporated with 586 stores. In 1913, Woolworth built the Woolworth Building in New York City at a cost of $13.5 million in cash: at the time, it was the tallest building in the world, measuring 792 feet. His granddaughter was heiress, Barbara Hutton.

1861–In the American Civil War, Fort Sumter surrenders to Confederate forces.

1865–In the American Civil War, Raleigh, North Carolina, is occupied by Union Forces.

1866–Outlaw, Butch Cassidy, is born Robert Leroy Parker in Beaver, Utah. He was a notorious train robber, bank robber, and leader of the Wild Bunch gang in the American Old West. After pursuing a career in crime for several years in the United States, the pressures of being pursued, notably by the Pinkerton detective agency, forced him to flee with an accomplice, Harry Alonzo Longabaugh (known as the Sundance Kid), and Longabaugh's girlfriend, Etta Place. The trio first went to Argentina, and then to Bolivia, where Parker and Longabaugh were thought to be killed in a shootout in November 1908, although absolute facts regarding Cassidy’s death remain unknown.

1868–Tewodros II of Ethiopia dies of suicide by a self-inflicted gunshot wound in Magdala, Ethiopia, at age 49.

1870–The Metropolitan Museum of Art is founded in New York City, though the building on 5th Avenue was not completed until later.

1873–The Colfax massacre, in which more than 60 African Americans are murdered, takes place in Colfax, Louisiana, the seat of Grant Parish.

1886–Activist, John Humphrey Noyes, dies in Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, at age 74. His body was returned to Oneida, New York, and was buried in the Oneida Community Cemetery with those of many of his followers. He was a preacher, radical religious philosopher, and utopian socialist. He founded the Oneida Community and is credited for having coined the term "free love." Noyes' son, Pierrepont, consolidated the Community's industries and focused solely on silverware production. The company became known as Oneida Limited and was the largest producer of flatware in the world for much of the 20th century.

1899–Alfred Moser Butts, inventor of the board game Scrabble, is born in Poughkeepsie, New York.

1902–J.C. Penney opens his first store at a location in Kemmerer, Wyoming.

1902–Baron (Georges) Philippe de Rothschild is born in Paris, France. He was an innovative member of the legendary Bordeaux wine growing family. During the 1920s, Philippe lived the life of a wealthy playboy, often found in the company of a beautiful woman at one of the popular night spots in Paris. For a short time, Philippe took up Grand Prix motor racing, using the pseudonym "Georges Philippe" in order to race anonymously. As an offshoot of self-bottling, Philippe came up with the idea of having his labels designed by famous artists. In 1946, this became a prominent and traditional part of the vineyard's image, with labels created by great painters and sculptors such as Jean Cocteau, Salvador Dalí, Joan Miró, Marc Chagall, Pablo Picasso, César, and Andy Warhol.

1906–Author, poet, and playwright, Samuel (Barclay) Beckett, is born in Foxrock, Dublin, Ireland. He is best known for his plays Waiting for Godot, Endgame, and Krapp's Last Tape. After college he went to Paris, France, where he was James Joyce's secretary for a time. He served in the French Resistance during World War II. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1969, but gave the money away to artists in need. He continued to live simply, in a working class neighborhood of Montparnasse, in an apartment overlooking a prison.

1909–The Turkish military reverses the Ottoman countercoup of 1909 to force the overthrow of Sultan Abdul Hamid II.

1915–Businessman and publisher, William Rockhill Nelson, dies at age 75. He founded The Kansas City Star.

1916–Funk Brothers Seed Company sells its first shipment of hybrid seed corn to Samuel Ramsay of Jacobsburg, Ohio.

1916–Chef, Edna Lewis, is born in Freetown, Orange County, Virginia. She was the first African-American celebrity chef. She is the author of The Taste of Southern Cooking.

1917–Financier and philanthropist, “Diamond Jim” Brady, dies of a heart attack in Atlantic City, New Jersey, at age 60. When his body was examined, doctors discovered that his stomach was six times the size of that of an average person. Brady's enormous appetite was as legendary as his wealth, though modern experts believe it was greatly exaggerated. It was not unusual, according to the legend, for Brady to eat enough food for 10 people at a sitting.

1919–British troops massacre at least 379 unarmed demonstrators in Amritsar, India. At least 1,200 others are wounded.

1919–The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea is established.

1919–Eugene V. Debs is imprisoned at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia, for speaking out against the draft during World War I.

1919–Actor, Howard (Clifford) Keel, is born in Gillespie, Illinois. He appeared in the films Annie Get Your Gun, Show Boat, Callaway Went Thataway, Lovely to Look At, Calamity Jane, Kiss Me Kate, Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, and Kismet.

1919–Atheist, Madalyn Murray O'Hair, is born Madalyn Mays in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. She was an atheist activist and founder of American Atheists (the organization's president from 1963 to 1986). She created the first issues of American Atheist Magazine. O'Hair is best known for the Murray vs. Curlett lawsuit, which led to a landmark Supreme Court ruling in 1963, ending official Bible-reading in American public schools.

1919–Philanthropist and activist, Phoebe Hearst, dies of the Spanish flu in Pleasanton, California, at age 76. She was married to George Hearst, and their only child was William Randolph Hearst.

1923–Actor, Don Adams, is born Donald James Yarmy in New York, New York. He is best known for the role of Maxwell Smart on the comedy series Get Smart.

1924–Film director and choreographer, Stanley Donen, is born in Columbia, South Carolina. His films include On the Town, Royal Wedding, Singin’ in the Rain, Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, Funny Face, The Pajama Game, and Damn Yankees! He was married to actress, Yvette Mimieux.

1927–The Stanley Cup: The Ottawa Senators beats the Boston Bruins, in 2 games and 2 ties.

1928–Early Blues great, Barbecue Bob, records Blind Pig Blues for Columbia Records.

1933–Lord Clydesdale makes the first flight over Mount Everest.

1933–The Stanley Cup: The New York Rangers beats the Toronto Maple Leafs, 3 games to 1.

1935–Actor, Lyle (Wesley) Waggoner, is born in Kansas City, Kansas. He is best known as one of the regular players on the TV series The Carol Burnett Show.

1936–Metaxas proclaims himself dictator of Greece.

1937–Actor, Edward Fox, is born Edward Charles Morice Fox in Chelsea, London, England. He appeared in the films The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner, This Sporting Life, The Mind Benders, Life at the Top, Oh! What a Lovely War, The Go-Between, The Day of the Jackal, Gandhi, The Dresser, and Lost in Space.

1939–The Hindustani Lal Sena (Indian Red Army) is formed in India with the intention to engage in armed struggle against the British.

1939–Poet, Seamus (Justin) Heaney, is born in Castledawson, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. He was recognized as one of the principal contributors to poetry during his lifetime. Heaney was a professor at Harvard from 1981 to 1997, and its Poet in Residence from 1988 to 2006. His literary papers are held by the National Library of Ireland.

1939–Actor, Paul (Anthony) Sorvino, is born in Brooklyn, New York. Hea ppeared in the films Where’s Poppa?, Panic in Needle Park, A Touch of Class, The Day of the Dolphin, The Gambler, Oh God!, Bloodbrothers, Cruising, Reds, Turk 192!, Dick Tracy, Goodfellas, The Firm, Nixon, and Bulworth. His daughter is actress, Mira Sorvino.

1940–The Stanley Cup: The New York Rangers beats the Toronto Maple Leafs, 4 games to 2.

1940–Lester Chambers, of The Chambers Brothers, is born in Mississippi. The group’s biggest hit was Time Has Come Today.

1941–A pact of neutrality is signed between the USSR and Japan.

1942–Movie composer, Bill Conti, is born William Conti in Providence, Rhode Island. He is best known for his film score for Rocky (and four of its sequels). His other films include Blume in Love, An Unmarried Woman, Gloria, Bad Boys, The Karate Kid, Broadcast News, and 8 Seconds.

1943–On the 200th anniversary of Thomas Jefferson's birth, President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicates the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C.

1943–The discovery of mass graves of Polish prisoners of war killed by Soviet forces in the Katyn Forest Massacre is announced, causing a diplomatic rift between the Polish government-in-exile in London, England, from the Soviet Union, which denies responsibility.

1943–Prisoners James Boarman, Fred Hunter, Harold Brest, and Floyd G. Hamilton, make an attempt to escape from Alcatraz.

1943–Doreen (Isabelle) Tracey, an original Mouseketeer on The Mickey Mouse Club, is born in St. Pancras, London, England.

1944–Diplomatic relations between New Zealand and the Soviet Union are established.

1944–The Stanley Cup: The Montreal Canadiens beats the Chicago Blackhawks, in 4 games.

1944–Bassist, Jack (William) Casady, is born in Washington, D.C. He played with Jefferson Airplane and Hot Tuna.

1944–Brian Pendleton, of The Pretty Things, is born in Heath Town, Wolverhampton, England.

1945–German troops kill more than 1,000 political and military prisoners in Gardelegen, Germany.

1945–Soviet and Bulgarian forces capture Vienna, Austria.

1945–Actor, Tony Dow, is born in Hollywood, California. He is best known for the role of Wally Cleaver on the TV series Leave It to Beaver.

1945–Lowell (Thomas) George, of Little Feat, is born in Hollywood, California.

1946–Soul singer, Al Green, is born Albert Leornes Greene in Forest City, Arkansas. His hits include Tired of Being Alone, I'm Still in Love with You, Love and Happiness, and Let's Stay Together. Green became an ordained pastor of the Full Gospel Tabernacle in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1976.

1948–In an ambush, 78 Jewish doctors, nurses, and medical students from Hadassah Hospital (and a British soldier) are massacred by Arabs in Sheikh Jarra near Jerusalem.

1949–A 6.9 earthquake shakes Olympia and Tacoma, Washington, along the southern edge of Puget Sound. Eight people are killed and property damage in Olympia, Seattle, and Tacoma is estimated at $25 million.

1949–The 3rd NBA Championship: The Minneapolis Lakers beat the Washington Capitols, 4 games to 2.

1950–Actor, Ron Perlman, is born Ronald N. Perlman in the Bronx, New York. He is best known for the role of Vincent in the TV series Beauty and the Beast. He appreared in the films Quest for Fire, Sleepwalkers, Cronos, The Adventures of Huck Finn, The Last Supper, and Star Trek: Nemesis.

1951–Singer, (Robert) Peabo Bryson, is born Robert Peapo Bryson in Greenville, South Carolina. Among his duets with female singers are Beauty and the Beast, A Whole New World, Tonight I Celebrate My Love, If Ever You're in My Arms Again, and I Have Dreamed.

1951–Rock drummer, Max Weinberg, is born in Newark, New Jersey. He is best known as the longtime drummer for Bruce Springsteen's E Street Band and as the bandleader for Conan O'Brien on Late Night with Conan O'Brien and The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien.

1953–CIA Director, Allen Dulles, launches the mind control program MKULTRA.

1953–Writer, Ian Fleming, publishes the first James Bond novel, Casino Royale.

1954–Robert Oppenheimer is accused of being a Communist.

1954–Jimmy Destri, keyboardist for Blondie, is born James Mollica in Brooklyn, New York.

1957–Due to a lack of funds, Saturday mail delivery is temporarily halted in America.

1957–The 11th NBA Championship: The Boston Celtics beat the St. Louis Hawks, 4 games to 3.

1958–Van Cliburn is the first American to win first prize in the Soviet Union's Tchaikovsky International Piano Contest in Moscow, Russia.

1960–The United States launches Transit 1-B, the world's first satellite navigation system.

1960–Upon exploding an A-Bomb in the Sahara Desert, France becomes the fourth nuclear nation.

1961–U.N. General Assembly condemns South Africa for apartheid.

1961–The 3rd Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Percy Faith for Theme from a Summer Place; Album of the Year: Bob Newhart for The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart; Song of the Year: Ernest Gold for Theme of Exodus; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Ray Charles for Georgia on My Mind; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Ella Fitzgerald for Mack the Knife; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: Eydie Gormé & Steve Lawrence for We Got Us; Best Country & Western Performance: Marty Robbins for El Paso; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Ray Charles for Let the Good Times Roll; Best Instrumental Performance: Henry Mancini for Mr. Lucky; Best New Artist: Bob Newhart. The ceremonies are held in Los Angeles, California, and New York. There is no host.

1962–The Beatles begin a seven-week stint at the Star-Club in Hamburg, West Germany. They were required to perform for four hours one night and for three hours the next, alternating back and forth (performing in shifts of one hour on, one hour off). Over a period of 48 nights, they log 172 hours on stage. For two weeks The Beatles shared the bill with rocker, Gene Vincent.

1962–Musician, Hillel Slovak, is born in Haifa, Israel. He was the original guitarist for the Red Hot Chili Peppers.

1964–The 36th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Tom Jones; Best Actor: Sidney Poitier for Lilies of the Field; Best Actress: Patricia Neal for Hud; Best Director: Tony Richardson for Tom Jones; Best Foreign Film: 8-1/2 (Italy). The ceremonies are held at the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Santa Monica, California. The host is Jack Lemmon.

1965–The 7th Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Astrud Gilberto & Stan Getz for The Girl from Ipanema; Album of the Year: João Gilberto & Stan Getz for Getz/Gilberto; Song of the Year: Jerry Herman (songwriter) for Hello, Dolly!; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Louis Armstrong for Hello, Dolly!; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Barbra Streisand for People; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: The Beatles for A Hard Day's Night; Best Country & Western Performance: Roger Miller for Dang Me; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Nancy Wilson for How Glad I Am; Best Rock and Roll Performance: Petula Clark for Downtown; Best Instrumental Performance: Henry Mancini for The Pink Panther Theme; Best New Artist: The Beatles. The ceremonies are held at the Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills, California. There is no host.

1966–Pan Am Airlines places an order of $525 million for 25 Boeing 747s.

1966–Politician, Abdul Salam Arif, dies in the crash of Iraqi Air Force de Havilland DH.104 Dove 1, RF392, in southern Iraq, at age 45. He was the second President of Iraq.

1969–The 33rd Golf Masters Championship: George Archer wins, shooting a 281.

1970–”Houston, we have a problem.” An oxygen tank aboard Apollo 13 explodes, putting the crew in great danger and causing major damage to the spacecraft while en route to the Moon.

1970–The 34th Golf Masters Championship: Billy Casper wins, shooting a 279.

1970–Actor, Rick Schroder, is born Richard Bartlett Schroder, Jr. in Brooklyn, New York. As child actor, he starred in the TV series Silver Spoons. And he is known for the role of Newt Dobbs in the TV mini-series Lonesome Dove. He appeared in the flims The Champ, The Earthling, Little Lord Fauntleroy, Across the Tracks, There Goes My Baby, Crimson Tide, and Black Cloud.

1972–The Universal Postal Union decides to recognize the People's Republic of China as the only legitimate Chinese representative, effectively expelling the Republic of China administering Taiwan.

1974–Western Union (in cooperation with NASA and Hughes Aircraft) launches America's first commercial geosynchronous communications satellite, Westar 1.

1974–Jane Asher, Paul McCartney’s former girlfriend, gives birth to a baby girl at Middlesex Hospital in London, England.

1975–An attack by the Phalangist resistance kills 26 militia members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, marking the start of the 15-year Lebanese Civil War.

1975–The 39th Golf Masters Championship: Jack Nicklaus wins, shooting a 276.

1975–Actor, Larry Parks, dies of a heart attack in Studio City, California, at age 60. His career was cut short by blacklisting in the 1950s. He appeared in the films You Belong to Me, Three Girls About Town, Blondie Goes to College, The Deerslayer, Renegades, The Jolson Story, Down to Earth, and Tiger by the Tail.

1976–The U.S. Treasury Department reintroduces the two-dollar bill as a Federal Reserve Note on Thomas Jefferson's 233rd birthday, as part of the United States Bicentennial celebration.

1976–Forty workers die in an explosion at the ammunition factory in Lapua, Finland.

1976–Actor, Jonathan (Gregory) Brandis, is born in Danbury, Connecticut. He made his acting debut in 1982, with a guest role on the ABC soap opera One Life to Live. In 1990, at the age of 14, he became widely known for his leading role on the Stephen King's supernatural horror miniseries IT. He appeared in the films Fatal Attraction, Stepfather II, Ghost Dad, Ladybugs, and Sidekicks.

1980–The 1950s-themed musical, Grease, closes. Its 3,883 performances makes it the longest-running show on Broadway until its record is surpassed by A Chorus Line.

1980–The U.S. boycotts the Summer Olympics in Moscow, Russia.

1980–The 44th Golf Masters Championship: Seve Ballesteros wins, shooting a 275.

1981–Prince Yasuhiko Asaka of Japan dies of natural causes at his home in Atami, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, at age 93. He was the founder of a collateral branch of the Japanese imperial family and a career officer in the Imperial Japanese Army.

1982–A 5.0 earthquake kills one person and injures 20 others in rockslides in a gold mine near Welkom, in the Republic of South Africa.

1982–David Crosby is arrested on charges of drug possession in Dallas, Texas. It's the second time in three weeks he's been busted there.

1983–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1983–Christmas Humphreys, lawyer, writer and Buddhist, dies at age 82. In 1924, he founded what became the London Buddhist Society, which was to have a seminal influence on the growth of the Buddhist tradition in Britain. His former home in St. John's Wood, London, England, is now a Buddhist temple.

1986–The 50th Golf Masters Championship: Jack Nicklaus wins, shooting a 279.

1987–Portugal and the People's Republic of China sign an agreement in which Macau will be returned to China in 1999.

1989–Singer, Jack Jones, receives a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

1992–The Great Chicago flood devastates much of central Chicago, Illinois.

1997–The 61st Golf Masters Championship: Tiger Woods wins, shooting a 270. At age 21, Woods is the youngest player to win the Masters Tournament.

1999–Fred Seaman, former assistant to John Lennon, is sued by Yoko Ono and Capitol Records over personal effects of the late artist. The suit claims that Seaman launched "an elaborate scheme to exploit Lennon's death by stealing priceless personal and sentimental items."

2002–Pedro Carmona, interim President of Venezuela, resigns one day after taking office.

2003–The 67th Golf Masters Championship: Mike Weir wins, shooting a 281.

2008–The 72nd Golf Masters Championship: Trevor Immelman wins, shooting a 280.

2012–North Korean long-range rocket testing ends in failure.

2013–Actor, Frank Bank, dies in Rancho Mirage, California, at age 71. He is best known for the role of Lumpy Rutherford on the popular TV series Leave It to Beaver.

2014–A bus traveling from Villahermosa to Mexico City, Mexico, crashes into a tractor-trailer and catches fire, killing at least 36 people.

2015–Writer, Günter Grass, dies of a lung infection in Luebeck, Germany, at age 87. He won the Nobel Prize for his novel The Tin Drum.

2016–Peabody Energy, the largest privately-owned producer of coal in the world, headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri, files for bankruptcy court protection due to high debts and a drop in world prices.

2017–Construction begins on the Golden Gate Bridge Suicide-Prevention Net in San Francisco, California.

2017–NASA announces that Saturn's moon, Enceladus, has the conditions in its global subsurface ocean to support life.

2017–Nintendo officially discontinues the NES Classic in North America. It is the company’s wildly popular $60 game console.

2017–The U.S. Air Force drops the largest non-nuclear bomb in the U.S. arsenal, the 22,000-pound "mother of all bombs," in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan, on an ISIL complex of tunnels and caves. This is the first use of the weapon on the battlefield.

2018–President Trump pardons former Vice-President Dick Cheney's Chief of Staff, Lewis "Scooter" Libby, who was convicted of lying about leaks to the media.

2018–Huey Lewis and the News cancel all of their 2018 performances due to the hearing loss of lead singer, Huey Lewis, who can no longer hear music well enough to sing.

2018–The billionaire CEO behind Bratz dolls and Little Tikes toys, Issac Larian, officially makes a bid of $675 million to buy many of the Toys "R" Us stores in the United States, along with an additional $215 million for Toys "R" Us stores in Canada.

2018–Film director, Milos Forman, dies in Danbury, Connecticut, at age 86. His films include Black Peter, Loves of a Blonde, Taking Off, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, Hair, Ragtime, Amadeus, Heartburn, Valmont, The People vs. Larry Flynt, Man on the Moon, and Keeping the Faith.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: A coin for Krum the Fearsome; Guy Fawkes; Frederick North; William Henry Lane; an early Woolworth five and dime store; John Humphrey Noyes; Samuel Beckett; "Diamond" Jim Brady; Don Adams; Lyle Waggoner; Paul Sorvino; Tony Dow; Ron Pearlman; Jimmy Destri; The Girl from Ipanema by Astrid Gilberto; Rick Schroder; Larry Parks; Christmas Humphreys; and Fred Seaman.

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