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1945–President Franklin Delano Roosevelt dies of a cerebral hemorrhage in his home at Warm Springs, Georgia, at age 63. At the time he collapsed from the stroke, Roosevelt had been sitting for a portrait by the artist Elizabeth Shoumatoff; the painting is known as the famous “Unfinished Portrait of FDR.” The only man to be elected to four terms as President of the United States, Roosevelt is remembered, by friends and enemies alike, for his “New Deal” social policies and his leadership during wartime. Upon Roosevelt’s death, Harry S. Truman is sworn in as the 33rd U.S. President.

BC 45–Gnaeus Pompeius, Roman general and politician, dies at age 30. he was the elder son of Pompey the Great.

238–Roman Emperor, Gordian I, dies by hanging himself with his belt after a battle in Carthage, Africa Proconsularis, at age 79. Roman Emperor, Gordian II, dies in the same battle, at age 46.

240–Shapur I becomes co-emperor of the Sasanian Empire with his father, Ardashir I.

352–Pope Julius I dies in Rome, Western Roman Empire.

467–Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire.

627–King Edwin of Northumbria is converted to Christianity by Paulinus, Bishop of York.

959–Emperor En’yu is born Morihira-shinno in Heian Kyo (Kyoto), Japan.

1116–Rikissa of Poland is born. She was Queen in Sweden and Grand Princess of Minsk.

1167–King Karl Sverkersson of Sweden is murdered on the island of Visingsö, in the southern half of Lake Vättern in Sweden.

1204–The Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade breach the walls of Constantinople and enter the city, which they completely occupy the following day.

1432–Anne of Austria, Landgravine of Thuringia, is born in Vienna, Austria.

1482–Indian ruler, Rana Sanga, is born Sangram Singh in Malwa, Delhi Sultanate.

1484–Architect, Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, is born in Florence, Italy. He designed the Apostolic Palace and St. Peter's Basilica.

1555–Joanna of Castile dies in Tordesillas, Spain, at age 75. Known as Joanna the Mad because in 1506, she was deemed mentally ill and confined to a nunnery for the rest of her life.

1577–Christian IV of Denmark is born at Frederiksborg Palace in Denmark. His reign of more than 59 years is the longest of all Danish monarchs. Christian began his personal rule of Denmark in 1596, at the age of 19. He is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, ambitious, and proactive Danish kings, having initiated many reforms and projects. However, his personal obsession with witchcraft led to the public execution of some innocent subjects, leading to the greatest number of deaths in Denmark during the Burning Times.

1606–The Union Jack is adopted as the flag of Great Britain.

1624–Galileo's hearing before the Inquisition begins, on the issue of the heresy surrounding his recently published Dialogues, which in the Church's eyes supported the Copernican or heliocentric system of the universe. The Church regards the theory that the Sun was the center of the universe as heresy.

1654–The Ordinance of Union comes into effect, uniting Ireland and Scotland with England.

1675–Politician, Richard Bennett, dies at age 65. He was Colonial Governor of Virginia.

1724–Physician, Lyman Hall, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, is born.

1748–Architect, William Kent, dies at Burlington House in London, England, at age 62. He introduced the Palladian style of architecture into England with the villa at Chiswick House, and by originating the “natural” style of gardening known as the English landscape garden at Chiswick, Stowe House in Buckinghamshire, and Rousham House in Oxfordshire.

1776–As part of the American Revolution, the North Carolina Provincial Congress authorizes its Congressional delegation to vote for independence from Britain.

1807–The Froberg mutiny ends when the remaining mutineers blow up the magazine of Fort Ricasoli in Kalkara, Malta.

1811–The first American colonists arrive on the Pacific Coast, at Cape Disappointment, Washington.

1820–Alexander Ypsilantis is declared leader of Filiki Eteria, a secret organization to overthrow Ottoman rule over Greece.

1831–Soldiers marching on the Broughton Suspension Bridge in Manchester, England. cause it to collapse.

1857–The first installment of Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary is published in Revue de Paris. The novel is condemned by the Church and by the regime of Napoleon, because of its frank depiction of an adulterous woman.

1861–Confederates fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, starting the American Civil War.

1864–In the Battle of Fort Pillow, Confederate forces kill most of the African-American soldiers that surrendered at Fort Pillow, Tennessee.

1865–In the American Civil War, Mobile, Alabama, falls to the Union Army.

1877–The United Kingdom annexes the Transvaal.

1877–A catcher's mask is used for the first time in a baseball game.

1883–Photographer, Imogen Cunningham, is born in Portland, Oregon. She was known for her portraiture and botanical studies. Cunningham also produced a photographic series of nudes and street photography, and worked for Vanity Fair for many years, photographing celebrities without makeup. She was one of the seven founders of Group f/64, along with Ansel Adams and Edward Weston, whose purpose was to promote a Modernist photography aesthetic based on precisely exposed and focused images of the natural world and found objects.

1892–George C. Blickensderfer patents the portable typewriter.

1898–Opera singer, Lily Pons, is born Alice Joséphine Pons in Draguignan, France. Pons was a principal soprano at the Metropolitan Opera for 30 years, appearing 300 times in 10 roles from 1931 until 1960. She specialized in the coloratura soprano repertoire.

1899–Actor, Chief Thundercloud, is born Victor Daniels in Muskogee, Indian Territory. Daniels worked many jobs before becoming a stuntman. From there he graduated to character actor status. His title “Chief” was a Hollywood invention. He appeared in the films Custer’s Last Stand, The Lone Ranger, Typhoon, Outlaw Trail, Ambush, Colt .45, Santa Fe, and The Searchers.

1902–Academic and politician, Louis Beel, is born Louis Joseph Maria Beel in Roermond, Netherlands. He was Prime Minister of the Netherlands.

1905–The Hippodrome opens in New York City with the gala musical revue A Yankee Circus on Mars.

1910–The SMS Zrínyi, one of the last pre-dreadnought battleships built by the Austro-Hungarian Navy, is launched.

1911–The first non-stop London-Paris flight take 3 hours and 56 minutes.

1912–Blues musician, Hound Dog Taylor, is born Theodore Roosevelt Taylor in Natchez, Mississippi. He was known for his electrified slide guitar playing (roughly styled after that of Elmore James), his cheap Japanese Teisco guitars, and his raucous boogie beats.

1912–Clara Barton, organizer of the American Red Cross, dies of tuberculosis at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland, at age 90. She worked as a hospital nurse in the American Civil War, as well as a teacher and patent clerk. Barton is noteworthy for doing humanitarian work at a time when relatively few women worked outside the home.

1914–The Strand movie theater opens in New York City. The theater was the first movie "palace," seating 3,000 people and boasting a second-floor balcony. Enormous theaters, such as this one, would catch on in the following decades.

1917–In World War I, Canadian forces successfully complete the taking of Vimy Ridge from the Germans.

1919–The British Parliament passes a 48-hour work week with minimum wages.

1921–Blues singer, Shakey Jake Harris, is born in Earle, Arkansas. He was given the name because of his way of throwing dice. His albums included 1972's Devil's Harmonica.

1923–Actress-dancer, Ann Miller, is born Johnnie Lucille Collier in Chireno, Texas. She is best known for her work in the Hollywood musical films of the 1940s and 1950s. She appeared in the films The Life of the Party, Stage Door, You Can't Take It with You, Room Service, Tarnished Angel, Too Many Girls, Hit Parade of 1941, Melody Ranch, Easter Parade, The Kissing Bandit, On the Town, Two Tickets to Broadway, Lovely to Look At, Kiss Me Kate, Hit the Deck, The Opposite Sex, The Great American Pastime, Dames at Sea, and Mulholland Drive. Miller married twice, but in between marriages she dated such well-known men as Howard Hughes, Conrad Hilton, and Louis B. Mayer.

1924–Politician, Raymond Barre, is born Raymond Octave Joseph Barre in St-Denis, France. He was Prime Minister of France.

1927–In the Shanghai massacre of 1927, Chiang Kai-shek orders the Communist Party of China members executed in Shanghai, ending the First United Front.

1927–A tornado wipes out the town of Rock Springs, Texas, killing 72 people and causing $1.2 million in damage. More than one mile in width, the tornado destroys 235 of 247 buildings, leaving no trace of lumber or contents in many cases. Many survivors are bruised by large hail which falls after the passage of the tornado.

1927–Actress, Jane Withers, is born in Atlanta, Georgia. Beginning a prolific career as a child actress at the age of three, she best known for being one of the most popular child film stars of the 1930s and early 1940s, as well as for her portrayal of "Josephine the Plumber" in a series of TV commercials for Comet cleanser in the 1960s and early 1970s. She appeared in the films Imitation of Life, Bright Eyes, The Good Fairy, Little Miss Nobody, Rascals, The North Star, Giant, and Captain Newman, M.D.

1928–The Bremen, a German Junkers W 33 type aircraft, takes off for the first successful transatlantic aeroplane flight from east to west.

1932–Novelty artist, Tiny Tim, is born Herbert Khaury in Manhattan, New York. He came to fame with his big hit Tiptoe Through the Tulips in 1968. He started using the stage name Tiny Tim in 1962, when his manager booked him at a club that favored acts by performers who were short in stature.

1934–The strongest surface wind gust in the world, 231 mph, was measured by the staff of the Mount Washington Observatory on the summit of Mount Washington.

1934–The U.S. Auto-Lite strike begins, culminating in a five-day melee between Ohio National Guard troops and 6,000 strikers and picketers.

1935–Your Hit Parade debuts on American radio. It would be developed into a popular TV show in the 1950s.

1937–Sir Frank Whittle ground-tests the first jet engine designed to power an aircraft, at Rugby, England.

1938–The Stanley Cup: The Chicago Blackhawks beats the Toronto Maple Leafs, 3 games to 1.

1939–Playwright, Alan Ayckbourn, is born in London, England. At 17, he joined a local theater company, doing bit parts and acting as stage manager. His plays include Absent Friends, The Norman Conquests, Absurd Person Singular, and Comic Potential. His play House & Garden, consisted of two overlapping full-length plays that perform simultaneously in adjoining theaters. Intimate Exchanges has two first acts, four second acts, eight third acts, and 16 fourth acts, because each episode concludes with a choice.

1940–Jazz pianist, composer, and producer, Herbie Hancock, is born Herbert Jeffrey Hancock in Chicago, Illinois. He was one of the first jazz musicians to embrace synthesizers and funk music.

1941–The Stanley Cup: The Boston Bruins beats the Detroit Red Wings, in 4 games.

1942–The 9th Golf Masters Championship: Byron Nelson wins, shooting a 280.

1942–Actor, Frank Bank, is born in Hollywood, California. He is best known for the role of Lumpy Rutherford in Leave It to Beaver.

1942–Larry Ramos, of the The Association, is born in Hawaii.

1944–John Kay, of Steppenwolf, is born Joachim Krauledat in Tilsit, East Prussia, Germany. Among the band’s hits are Born to Be Wild, Magic Carpet Ride, Monster, The Pusher, and Rock Me.

1945–General Dwight D. Eisenhower is shown the cave one-half-mile under the Earth's surface, where the Nazis hoarded $250 million in captured treasures.

1945–The U.S. Ninth Army, under General William H. Simpson, crosses the Elbe River astride Magdeburg, and reaches Tangermünde, only 50 miles from Berlin, Germany.

1945–President Franklin Delano Roosevelt dies of a cerebral hemorrhage in his home at Warm Springs, Georgia, at age 63. At the time he collapsed from the stroke, Roosevelt had been sitting for a portrait by the artist Elizabeth Shoumatoff; the painting is known as the famous “Unfinished Portrait of FDR.” The only man to be elected to four terms as President of the United States, Roosevelt is remembered, by friends and enemies alike, for his “New Deal” social policies and his leadership during wartime. Upon Roosevelt’s death, Harry S. Truman is sworn in as the 33rd U.S. President.

1946–Actor, Ed O'Neill, is born. He is best known for his starring role on the TV series Married... With Children.

1947–Alex Briley, of The Village People, is born Alexander Briley in Harlem, New York. He performed the "G.I." role in the disco music group.

1947–Historian and author, Tom Clancy, is born Thomas Leo Clancy, Jr. in Baltimore, Maryland. He is best known for his technically detailed espionage and military science storylines set during and after the Cold War. Seventeen of his novels were bestsellers, and more than 100 million copies of his books are in print. His works include The Hunt for Red October, Patriot Games, Clear and Present Danger, and The Sum of All Fears.

1947–Actor, Dan Lauria, is born Daniel Joseph Lauria in Brooklyn, New York. He is best known for the role of Jack Arnold on the popular TV series The Wonder Years. He appeared in the films Stakeout, David, Another Stakeout, Independence Day, From the Earth to the Moon, Wide Awake, The Bronx is Burning, and The Spirit.

1947–Comedian, David (Michael) Letterman, is born in Indianapolis, Indiana. He hosted a late night television talk show for 33 years, beginning with the February 1, 1982, debut of Late Night with David Letterman on NBC-TV, and ending with the May 20, 2015, broadcast of the Late Show with David Letterman on CBS-TV. In total, Letterman hosted 6,028 episodes of Late Night and Late Show, surpassing friend and mentor, Johnny Carson, as the longest-serving late night talk show host in American television history.

1949–Writer, Scott (Frederick) Turow, is born in Chicago, Illinois. His books have been translated into more than 40 languages and sold more than 30 million copies. His works include Presumed Innocent, The Burden of Proof, Pleading Guilty, and The Laws of Our Fathers.

1950–Teen idol, singer, and actor, David (Bruce) Cassidy, is born in New York, New York. He is best known for the role of Keith Partridge on the TV series The Partridge Family. He would go to be one of the biggest pop stars of all time. His parents are actor, Jack Cassidy, and Evelyn Ward. His stepmother is actress, Shirley Jones. He was married to actress, Kay Lenz.

1953–The 17th Golf Masters Championship: Ben Hogan wins, shooting a 274.

1954–Bill Haley and the Comets record Rock Around the Clock. It sells an estimated 25 million copies worldwide, making it the second biggest-selling single at the time, only behind Bing Crosby's White Christmas. First released as a "B" side, it was featured the next year in the film Blackboard Jungle, and became the first rock and roll record to hit #1 on the Billboard Pop charts.

1954–Joe Turner releases Shake, Rattle & Roll.

1954–The 18th Golf Masters Championship: Sam Snead wins, shooting a 289.

1954–The 8th NBA Championship: The Minneapolis Lakers beat the Syracuse Nationals, 4 games to 3.

1955–The Salk polio vaccine is determined to be safe and effective. Baby Boomers across America will soon line up to get their polio shots.

1955–The venerable national radio show, Your Hit Parade, celebrates its 20th anniversary.

1956–Actor, Andy Garcia, is born Andrés Arturo García Menéndez in Havana, Cuba. He appeared in the films The Mean Season, 8 Million Ways to Die, The Untouchables, Stand and Deliver, Black Rain, Internal Affairs, The Godfather Part III, Dead Again, Hero, Jennifer 8, When a Man Loves a Woman, Steal Big Steal Little, Ocean’s Eleven, and The Lost City.

1957–The USSR conducts an atmospheric nuclear test.

1957–Vince Gill, is born Vincent Grant Gill in Norman, Oklahoma. He has recorded more than 20 studio albums, charted over 40 singles on the U.S. Billboard charts as "Hot Country Songs," and has sold more than 26 million albums. He was married to country singers, Janis Oliver and Amy Grant.

1957–Writer, Tama Janowitz, is born in San Francisco, California. She is often referenced as one of the main "brat pack" writers, along with Bret Easton Ellis, Mark Lindquist, and Jay McInerney. Her best known book is Slaves of New York.

1958–The 12th NBA Championship: The St. Louis Hawks beat the Boston Celtics, 4 games to 2.

1961–Soviet cosmonaut, Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin, becomes the first man to orbit the Earth.

1961–Walt W. Rostow, Senior White House Specialist on Southeast Asia and a principal architect of U.S. counter-insurgency doctrine, delivers a memorandum to President John F. Kennedy. In it, he asserts that the time has come for “gearing up the whole Vietnam operation.” All the proposals outlined in his memorandum would eventually become policy.

1963–Police use dogs and cattle prods on peaceful civil rights demonstrators in Birmingham, Alabama.

1963–The Soviet nuclear-powered submarine K-33 collides with the Finnish merchant vessel M/S Finnclipper in the Danish straits.

1963–Bob Dylan performs a solo concert at New York's Town Hall. It is recorded by CBS for a planned live album, but the disc is never released. However, Billboard is ecstatic about the performance, saying: “Dylan is the stuff of which legends are made. His talent will be around for a long, long time.”

1964–The 28th Golf Masters Championship: Arnold Palmer wins, shooting a 276.

1966–Jan Berry, of Jan and Dean, crashes his Corvette into a parked truck on Whittier Boulevard in Los Angeles, California, and is seriously injured. The surf duo had ironically recorded a song called Deadman's Curve. Berry remains paralyzed for a year and can speak properly only after four years of surgery.

1968–A nerve gas accident occurs at Skull Valley, Utah.

1968–Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention are invited to play the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences dinner in New York. Zappa tells the audience, “All year long you people have manufactured this crap, now for one night you're gonna have to listen to it!”

1970–Soviet submarine K-8, carrying four nuclear torpedoes, sinks in the Bay of Biscay four days after a fire on board.

1971–Actress, Shannen (Maria) Doherty, is born in Memphis, Tennessee. She is best known for the role of Brenda Walsh on the TV series Beverly Hills 90210. She appeared in the films Night Shift, Girls Just Want to Have Fun, Heathers, Mallrats, Burning Palms, and Bukowski.

1973–The film, That'll Be the Day, starring David Essex and Ringo Starr, has its premiere in London, England. It is one of the best British rock movies of all time. Even though Essex looks a lot like Paul McCartney, the story was based on the early years of the life of John Lennon.

1975–The U.S. Ambassador and his staff leave Phnom Penh when the U.S. Navy conducts its evacuation effort, Operation Eagle.

1975–Singer, Josephine Baker, dies from a stroke in Paris, France, at age 68. She came to be known in various circles as the "Black Pearl," "Bronze Venus," and the "Creole Goddess." She became a citizen of France in 1937, opened in "La Revue Nègre" on October 2, 1925, at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, becoming an instant success in Paris for her erotic dancing and for appearing practically nude on stage. She also starred in The Folies Bergère.

1978–Folk rocker, Sandy Denny, dies of traumatic mid-brain hemorrhage in Wimbledon, England, at age 31. She was a member of both Fairport Convention and The Strawbs. Her song Who Knows Where the Time Goes? has been recorded by artists as diverse as Judy Collins, Nina Simone, and 10,000 Maniacs.

1979–Actress, Claire (Catherine) Danes, is born in New York, New York. She appeared in the films Little Women, How to Make an American Quilt, Home for the Holidays, Romeo + Juliet, U Turn, The Rainmaker, The Mod Squad, Broke Down Palace, and The Famly Stone. She is married to actor, Hugh Dancy.

1980–Samuel Doe takes control of Liberia in a coup d'état, ending over 130 years of minority Americo-Liberian rule over the country.

1980–Terry Fox begins his "Marathon of Hope" at St. John's, Newfoundland.

1981–The first launching takes place of the re-useable Space Shuttle, Columbia, with an all U.S. Navy crew. The duration of the mission was 2 days, 6 hours, and 20 minutes. Sixteen of the shuttle's heat-shielding silicon tiles were lost and 148 were damaged during reentry.

1981–The 45th Golf Masters Championship: Tom Watson wins, shooting a 280.

1981–Boxer, Joe Louis, dies of cardiac arrest at Desert Springs Hospital in Paradise, Nevada, at age 66. In all, Louis made 25 defenses of his Heavyweight Chapionship title from 1937 to 1948, and was a world champion for 11 years and 10 months. His most remarkable record is that he knocked out 23 opponents in 27 title fights, including five world champions.

1982–Three CBS-TV network employees are shot to death in a New York City parking lot.

1983–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.

1984–A “Louie Louie Day” is held in Olympia, Washington, in an effort to make the famed song the state anthem. The campaign is unsuccessful.

1985–Federal inspectors declare that four animals of the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus are not unicorns, as the circus said, but goats with horns which had been surgically implanted. The circus is ordered to quit advertising the fake unicorns as anything other than goats.

1987–Texaco files for bankruptcy.

1987–The 51st Golf Masters Championship: Larry Mize wins, shooting a 285.

1988–Former pop performer, Sonny Bono, is elected Mayor of Palm Springs, California.

1988–Harvard University patents a genetically engineered mouse. This is the first such creation in regard to animal life.

1989–Abbie Hoffman, Yippie peace activist and revolutionary of the 1960s, dies from a drug and alcohol overdose at his home in Solebury Township, Pennsylvania, at age 52. He had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder in 1980. At the time of his death, he was surrounded by about 200 pages of his own handwritten notes, many about his own moods.

1989–Herbert Mills, of The Mills Brothers, dies from viral meningitis in Las Vegas, Nevada, at age 77. The group helped pioneer the doo-wop sound by mimicking instruments with their voices. One of the their biggest hits was Glow Worm.

1989–Boxer, Sugar Ray Robinson, dies of Alzheimer's disease in Los Angeles, California, at age 67. He is frequently cited as the greatest boxer of all time.

1990–Jim Gary's "Twentieth Century Dinosaurs" exhibition opens at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C. He is the only sculptor ever invited to present a solo exhibition there.

1991–The U.S. announces the closing of 31 major military bases.

1992–Euro Disney opens in Marne-la-Vallee, France. The resort and its park's name will later be changed to Disneyland Paris.

1992–The 56th Golf Masters Championship: Fred Couples wins, shooting a 275.

1992–Actress, Lisa Bonet, files for divorce from singer, Lenny Kravitz.

1994–Canter and Siegel post the first commercial mass Usenet “spam.”

1996–Actor, Dennis Hopper, marries actress, Victoria Duffy, at Boston's Old South Church.

1998–A 5.6 earthquake strikes near the town of Bovec, Slovenia.

1998–The 62nd Golf Masters Championship: Mark O'Meara wins, shooting a 279.

1999–President Bill Clinton is cited for contempt of court for giving "intentionally false statements" in a sexual harassment civil lawsuit.

1999–Two Beatles recordings and one John Lennon solo recording are named to the Recording Hall of Fame: The Beatles' album Revolver, the Beatles' song Strawberry Fields Forever, and the John Lennon solo recording, Imagine, are selected. Chuck Berry's Johnny B. Goode was also inducted.

1999–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: Chuck Philips and Michael A. Hiltzik, of The Los Angeles Times, for their stories on corruption in the entertainment industry, including a charity sham sponsored by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, illegal detoxification programs for wealthy celebrities, and a resurgence of radio payola; Fiction: The Hours by Michael Cunningham (Farrar, Straus & Giroux); Drama: Wit by Margaret Edson (Faber and Faber); Non-Fiction: Annals of the Former World by John McPhee (Farrar); History: Gotham–A History of New York City to 1898 by Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace (Oxford University Press); Biography or Autobiography: Lindbergh by A. Scott Berg (G.P. Putnam's Sons); Poetry: Blizzard of One by Mark Strand (Alfred A. Knopf); Photography: Staff of The Associated Press for its striking collection of photographs of the key players and events stemming from President Clinton's affair with Monica Lewinsky and the ensuing impeachment hearings; Music: Concerto for Flute, Strings and Percussion by Melinda Wagner (Theodore Presser Company). A Special Citation is given to Duke Ellington, “commemorating the centennial year of his birth, in recognition of his musical genius, which evoked aesthetically the principles of democracy through the medium of jazz and thus made an indelible contribution to art and culture.”

1999–Folksinger, Boxcar Willie, dies of leukemia in Branson, Missouri, at age 67. He sang in the "old-time hobo" music style, complete with dirty face, overalls, and a floppy hat. In 1985, Willie moved to Branson, Missouri, and purchased a theater on Highway 76 (76 Country Music Boulevard). In addition to the Boxcar Willie Theater, he opened a museum and eventually had two motels, both bearing his name. He was one of the first big stars to open a show in Branson, paving the way for the other nationally-known names that followed.

2000–Bo Diddley files suit against Nike for using his name and image without permission after a contract expired in 1991.

2001–Commercial artist, Harvey Ball, dies of liver failure in Worcester, Massachusetts, at age 70. In 1963, he created the “smiley face,” which became an international icon. Ball never applied for a trademark or copyright of his smiley face and earned just $45 for his work ($315 in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars).

2002–A suicide bomber blows herself up at the entrance to Jerusalem's Mahane Yehuda Market, killing seven people and wounding 104 others.

2006–Chime-Long Paradise opens in Panyu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. It is the largest amusement park in China, with 60 rides and attractions.

2007–A suicide bomber penetrates the Green Zone and detonates in a cafeteria within a parliament building, killing Iraqi MP, Mohammed Awad, and wounding more than 20 others.

2008–Rocker, Lou Reed, marries his second wife, conceptual artist, Laurie Anderson.

2008–Patrick Hillery, President of Ireland (1976-1990), dies in Dublin, Ireland, at age 84.

2009–Zimbabwe abandons the Zimbabwean dollar as its official currency.

2009–The U.S. Navy rescues Captain Richard Phillips, killing three pirates and capturing a fourth.

2009–The 73rd Golf Masters Championship: Ángel Cabrera wins, shooting a 276.

2009–Porn actress, Marilyn Chambers, dies of a cerebral hemorrhage in Santa Clarita, California, at age 56. She is best known for her 1972 hardcore film debut Behind the Green Door.

2010–A train derails near Merano, Italy, after running into a landslide, killing nine people and injuring 28 others.

2010–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: Matt Richtel and members of The New York Times staff for incisive work, in print and online, on the hazardous use of cell phones, computers, and other devices while operating cars and trucks; Fiction: Tinkers by Paul Harding (Bellevue Literary Press); Drama: Next to Normal, music by Tom Kitt, book and lyrics by Brian Yorkey; Non-Fiction: The Dead Hand–The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and Its Dangerous Legacy by David E. Hoffman (Doubleday); History: Lords of Finance–The Bankers Who Broke the World by Liaquat Ahamed (Penguin Press); Biography or Autobiography: The First Tycoon–The Epic Life of Cornelius Vanderbilt by T.J. Stiles (Alfred A. Knopf); Poetry: Versed by Rae Armantrout (Wesleyan University Press); Photography: Craig F. Walker, of The Denver Post, for his intimate portrait of a teenager who joins the U.S. Army at the height of insurgent violence in Iraq, poignantly searching for meaning and manhood; Music: Violin Concerto by Jennifer Higdon (Lawdon Press). A Special Citation is given to Hank Williams for his craftsmanship as a songwriter “who expressed universal feelings with poignant simplicity and played a pivotal role in transforming country music into a major musical and cultural force in American life.”

2012–Bodleian, Oxford University, and Vatican libraries announce over 1.5 million pages of ancient texts will be made available across the Internet.

2013–A man-made 32-foot, 60-ton monument that dates around BC 2000 is discovered in the see of Galilee.

2013–Two suicide bombers kill three Chadian soldiers and injure dozens of civilians at a market in Kidal, Mali.

2014–A massive fire ravages Valparaíso, Chile, killing 16 people, displacing nearly 10,000 others, and destroying over 2,000 homes.

2015–Hillary Clinton announces her candidacy in the 2016 election for U.S. President. The former Secretary of State, New York Senator, and First Lady enters the race in hopes of succeeding her rival from the 2008 campaign, Barack Obama.

2016–British researchers reveal that lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) may be useful in treating mental disorders such as major depressive disorder.

2016–Actress, Anne Jackson, dies at her home in New York, New York, at age 90. She appeared in the films Tall Story, The Secret Life of an American Wife, Lovers and Other Strangers, Dirty Dingus Magee, The Bell Jar, The Shining, A Woman Called Golda, Out on a Limb, Baby M, and Folks!

2017–Former Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad registers to run for a non-consecutive third term, according to state media.

2017–Sheila Abdus-Salaam, an incumbent associate judge of the New York Court of Appeals and the first African-American woman and Muslim to serve on the Court of Appeals, is found dead in the Hudson River in New York City.

2018–The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant opens its doors to tourism.

2018–Steve Huffman, co-founder and CEO of Reddit, says racism is allowed on the website. Some users criticize his position, while others praise Huffman for defending free speech.

2018–The Mary River turtle, which is endemic to the Mary River in south-east Queensland, Australia, is added to the Zoological Society of London's list of endangered species.

2018–A powerful storm topples two minarets at the entry gates of the famed Taj Mahal in northern India.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Joanna of Castile; Chiswick House in London, England; the first catcher's mask; Hound Dog Taylor; Ann Miller; a promo for Your Hit Parade; Frank Bank; Dan Lauria; Sam Snead; Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin; Shannen Doherty; Claire Danes; a Texico sign; Euro Disney in Marne-la-Vallee, France; The Hours by Michael Cunningham; Chime-Long Paradise in Panyu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; Tinkers by Paul Harding; and Hillary Clinton.

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