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1970–NASA launches lunar mission Apollo 13 from the Kennedy Space Center. The first two days are uneventful, but 56 hours into the mission, the crew hears a sharp bang and feels a vibration. Astronaut, James Lovell, looks out a window and sees that a gas is leaking from the spacecraft. It turns out that an oxygen tank had exploded, and there was a leak in the second tank. The mission was aborted 200,000 miles from Earth, in order to get the three astronauts home safely. They jerryrigged systems with plastic bags, cardboard, and tape to survive. The return trip took 85 hours, and it got as frigid as 38 degrees in the capsule, but they made it back to Earth. The duration of the mission was 5 days, 22 hours, and 54 minutes. This mission immortalized the phrase, "Houston, we have a problem."



145–Roman Emperor, Septimius Severus, is born in Leptis Magna (present-day Khoms, Libya).

491–Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I.

618–Emperor Yang of Sui dies in Danyang, Sui China, at age 49. he was the second Emperor of the Sui dynasty. Despite his accomplishments, Emperor Yang was generally considered by traditional historians to be one of the worst tyrants in Chinese history.

672–Deusdedit III begins his reign as Catholic Pope.

678–Pope Donus dies in Rome, Byzantine Empire.

1034–Byzantine Emperor, Romanos III Argyros, dies at age 66.

1077–Anawrahta Minsaw, founder of the Pagan Empire, dies in the Mandalay Region of Myanmar, Kingdom of Pagan, at age 62. The chronicles hint that his enemies ambushed and killed him and then disposed of the body in such a way that it was never found. A strict disciplinarian, Anawrahta implemented a series of key social, religious, and economic reforms that would have a lasting impact in Burmese history.

1079–Bishop Stanislaus of Kraków is executed by order of Boleslaw II of Poland.

1165–Stephen IV of Hungary dies by poisoning in Zimony (present-day Zemun in Serbia), at age 31.

1240–Llywelyn the Great, dies at the Cistercian Abbey at Aberconwy, Wales, at age 67. He was a Prince of Gwynedd in north Wales, and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales.

1241–Batu Khan defeats Béla IV of Hungary at the Battle of Mohi.

1357–John I of Portugal is born in Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal.

1512–In the War of the League of Cambrai, French forces, led by Gaston de Foix, win the Battle of Ravenna.

1544–French forces defeat a Spanish army at the Battle of Ceresole.

1689–William III and Mary II are crowned as joint sovereigns of Great Britain.

1727–Premiere of Johann Sebastian Bach's St. Matthew Passion BWV 244b at the St. Thomas Church, Leipzig, Germany.

1770–Politician, George Canning, is born in Marylebone, Middlesex, London, England. He was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. His health declined and he died in office in August 1827, after just 119 days in office, the shortest tenure of any British Prime Minister.

1775–The last execution for witchcraft takes place in Germany.

1783–After receiving a copy of the provisional treaty on March 13th, the U.S. Congress proclaims a formal end to hostilities with Great Britain.

1803–In one of the great surprises in diplomatic history, French Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, makes an offer to sell all of the Louisiana Territory to the United States.

1809–The Battle of the Basque Roads is fought between France and the United Kingdom.

1814–The Treaty of Fontainebleau ends the War of the Sixth Coalition against Napoleon Bonaparte, forcing him to abdicate his throne unconditionally for the first time. He is then banished to the island of Elba.

1856–In the Battle of Rivas, Juan Santamaría burns down the hostel where William Walker's filibusters are holed up.

1865–Abraham Lincoln makes his last public speech.

1868–Former Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu surrenders Edo Castle to Imperial forces, marking the end of the Tokugawa shogunate.

1869–Kasturba Gandhi, the wife of Mohandas Gandhi, is born in Porbandar, Kathiawar Agency, British India (present-day Gujarat, India). In association with her husband, she was a political activist, fighting for civil rights and Indian independence from the British.

1876–The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks is organized.

1881–Spelman College is founded in Atlanta, Georgia, as the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary, an institute of higher education for African-American women.

1888–The Concertgebouw in Amsterdam is inaugurated.

1890–Ellis Island is designated as an immigration station for the United States.

1890–Donna Rachele Mussolini, wife of Benito Mussolini, is born Rachele Guidi in Predappio Alta, Italy.

1890–Joseph Merrick, "The Elephant Man," dies of asphyxia in London Hospital, Whitechapel, London, England, at age 27. It is believed that Merrick (who had to sleep sitting up because of the weight of his head) had been attempting to sleep lying down, to "be like other people." He had severe deformities and was exhibited as a human curiosity named the Elephant Man. He became well known in London society after he went to live at the London Hospital. Merrick began to develop abnormally during the first few years of his life: his skin appeared thick and lumpy, he developed enlarged lips, and a bony lump grew on his forehead. One of his arms and both of his feet became enlarged, and at some point during his childhood he fell and damaged his hip, resulting in permanent lameness. Although his condition was incurable, Merrick was allowed to stay at London Hospital for the remainder of his life. In 1979, Bernard Pomerance's play about Merrick The Elephant Man debuted, and David Lynch's film (also called The Elephant Man), was released the following year.

1899–Percy (Lavon) Julian, holder of more than 138 chemical patents, is born in Montgomery, Alabama. He was a research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants. He was the first to synthesize the natural product physostigmine, and a pioneer in the industrial, large-scale chemical synthesis of the human hormones progesterone and testosterone from plant sterols such as stigmasterol and sitosterol. His work laid the foundation for the steroid drug industry's production of cortisone, other corticosteroids, and birth control pills.

1900–The U.S. Navy's first submarine becomes operational.

1901–Engineer, Adriano Olivetti, is born in Ivrea, Italy. He was known worldwide as the Italian manufacturer of Olivetti typewriters, calculators, and computers.

1905–George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion opens at His Majesty's Theatre in London, England. The show will have many reincarnations on stage and screen in the decades to come. On of them is the 1960s film version called My Fair Lady, starring Rex Harrison and Audrey Hepburn.

1906–Circus showman, James A. Bailey, dies of erysipelas in Mount Vernon, New York, at age 58.

1907–Actor, Paul Douglas, is born Paul Douglas Fleischer in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He appeared in the films A Letter to Three Wives, It Happens Every Spring, Panic in the Streets, Fourteen Hours, Rhubarb, Angels in the Outfield, Clash by Night, and We’re Not Married! He was married to actress, Jan Sterling.

1908–The SMS Blücher, the last armored cruiser to be built by the Imperial German Navy, is launched.

1909–The city of Tel Aviv is founded.

1913–The Nevill Ground's pavilion is destroyed in a suffragette arson attack, becoming the only cricket ground to be attacked by suffragettes.

1913–Fashion designer, Oleg Cassini, is born in Paris, France. Cassini was made the exclusive couturier to Jacqueline Kennedy in 1961, becoming known as her "Secretary of Style." Cassini's concept for dressing the First Lady was one of a new American elegance, naturalness, and understatement. "The Jackie Look" became very significant in American fashion, with designs such as the A-line, sheath, and empire strapless dress, continuing to have significant influence.

1915–The Tramp, Charlie Chaplin's third film and first comic masterpiece, is released. Chaplin had first created the appealing "Little Tramp" character the previous year in Kid Auto Races at Venice. In The Tramp, he refined the character and added his signature waddle. The endearing figure, with his bowler hat, baggy suit, and expression of hapless innocence, came to be Chaplin's trademark.

1916–Movie producer and director, Howard (Winchel) Koch, is born in New York, New York. His films include The Manchurian Candidate, Come Blow Your Horn, Robin and the 7 Hoods, The Odd Couple, On a Clear Day You Can See Forever, Plaza Suite, Once Is Not Enough, and Ghost.

1917–Composer, Scott Joplin, the "King of Ragtime," dies. Joplin became a well-known pianist in Chicago, Illinois, and St. Louis, Missouri, in the 1890s. Maple Leaf Rag launched a national craze for ragtime music, and he composed many other popular ragtime songs, including The Entertainer.

1919–The International Labour Organization is founded.

1921–Iowa becomes the first U.S. state to impose a cigarette tax.

1921–Emir Abdullah establishes the first centralized government in the newly created British protectorate of Transjordan.

1921–The first radio sports broadcast takes place.

1925–Ethel Kennedy, wife of Senator Robert Kennedy, is born Ethel Skakel in Chicago, Illinois. The couple eventually had 11 children: Kathleen, Joseph, Robert Jr., David, Courtney, Michael, Kerry, Christopher, Max, Douglas, and Rory. Rory was born after Senator Kennedy was assassinated.

1926–American botanist, Luther Burbank, dies of a heart attack and gastrointestinal complications in Santa Rosa, California, at age 77. A horticulturist, he developed many new varieties of fruits and vegetables, including the Burbank Potato, the Shasta Daisy, over 100 varieties of plums and prunes, and 10 varieties of berries. He was buried near the greenhouse at the Luther Burbank Home and Gardens.

1927–Chilean General, Carlos Ibáñez, names himself President.

1929–The Loetafoon celluloid film system is demonstrated in Amsterdam.

1931–Novelist and short-story writer, John O'Hara, dies in Princeton, New Jersey. His sparingly styled fiction stands as a social history of upwardly mobile Americans from the 1920s through the 1940s. Many of his best-selling novels were adapted for stage and screen, including the popular BUtterfield 8 and From the Terrace.

1932–Actor, Joel Grey, is born Joel David Katz in Cleveland, Ohio. He is best known for the role of the Master of Ceremonies in both the stage and film versions of the musical Cabaret. He appeared on Broadway in Come Blow Your Horn, Half a Sixpence, George M!, and Chicago. He appeared in the films Come September, Man on a Swing, The Seven-Per-Cent Solution, Remo Williams: The Adventure Begins, Kafka, A Christmas Carol, and The Fantasticks. His daughter is actress, Jennifer Grey.

1933–Dorothy Parker steps down as drama critic for The New Yorker.

1935–Richard Berry is born in Extension, Louisiana. He originally wrote and recorded the controversial frat anthem, Louie Louie, which became one of the most-covered songs in rock.

1936–The Stanley Cup: The Detroit Red Wings beats the Toronto Maple Leafs, 3 games to 1.

1939–Actress, Louise Lasser, is born in New York, New York. She is best known for the role of the title character on the soap opera parody Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman. She appeared in the films What’s New Pussycat, Take the Money and Run, Bananas, Such Good Friends, Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex *But Were Afraid to Ask, Sliver, Stardust Memories, Surrender, and Modern Love. She was married to actor and film director, Woody Allen.

1941–Nazi occupiers in the Netherlands confiscate Jewish assets.

1945–The American Third Army liberates 20,000 from the Buchenwald concentration camp, near Weimar, Germany, a camp that will be judged second only to Auschwitz in the horrors it imposed on its prisoners.

1947–Jackie Robinson becomes the first black player in major league baseball history, when he plays in an exhibition game for the Brooklyn Dodgers.

1947–Actor, Peter Riegert, is born in the Bronx, New York. He appeared in the films National Lampoon’s Animal House, Chilly Scenes of Winter, Local Hero, Crossing Delancey, Oscar, Gypsy, The Mask, The Baby Dance, Traffic, and We Bought a Zoo.

1947–Actor, Meshach Taylor, is born in Boston, Massachusetts. He is best known for the role of Anthony Bouvier on the sitcom Designing Women. He appeared in the films The Howling, The Beast Within, Warning Sign, One More Saturday Night, Explorers, Mannequin, House of Games, Class Act, and Friends and Family.

1948–The 12th Golf Masters Championship: Claude Harmon wins, shooting a 279.

1950–Prince Rainier III becomes ruler of Monaco.

1950–Actor and comedian, Bill Irwin, is born William Mills Irwin in Santa Monica, California. He began as a vaudeville-style stage performancer and has been noted for his contribution to the renaissance of American circus during the 1970s. He attended Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Clown Collegein 1975, and helped to found the Pickle Family Circus in San Francisco, California. He appeared in the films Popeye, Eight Men Out, Scenes from a Mall, Hot Shots!, The Manchurian Candidate, and Across the Universe.

1951–In perhaps the most famous civilian-military confrontation in the history of the United States, President Harry S. Truman relieves General Douglas MacArthur of command of the U.S. forces in Korea. The firing of MacArthur set off a brief uproar among the American public, but Truman remained committed to keeping the conflict in Korea a "limited war."

1951–The Stone of Scone, the stone upon which Scottish monarchs were traditionally crowned, is found on the site of the altar of Arbroath Abbey.

1955–The Air India Kashmir Princess is bombed and crashes in a failed assassination attempt on Zhou Enlai by the Kuomintang.

1955–Astronaut, Piers (John) Sellers, is born in Crowborough, Sussex, England. He was a British-American meteorologist and Director of the Earth Science Division at NASA/GSFC. As an astronaut, Piers was a veteran of three space shuttle missions.

1956–Elvis Presley has his first #1 record with Heartbreak Hotel. On the same day, his plane almost crashes as it flies from Los Angeles, California, to Nashville, Tennessee.

1957–The United Kingdom agrees to Singaporean self-rule.

1961–The trial of Adolf Eichmann begins in Jerusalem.

1961–Folksinger, Bob Dylan, makes his New York City stage debut at Gerde's Folk City, a small Greenwich Village club, opening for bluesman, John Lee Hooker. Dylan introduces his new material, including the song Blowing in the Wind.

1961–The 15th NBA Championship: The Boston Celtics beat the St, Louis Hawks, 4 games to 1.

1961–Doug Hopkins, of the Gin Blossoms, is born Douglas Owen Hopkins in Seattle, Washington.

1963–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1963–Pope John XXIII issues Pacem in terris, the first encyclical addressed to all people instead of to Catholics alone.

1965–The Beatles perform at the New Musical Express 1964-1965 Annual Poll Winners' All-Star Concert, at the Empire Pool in Wembley, London, England. Before an audience of 10,000, The Beatles perform I Feel Fine, She's a Woman, Baby's In Black, Ticket to Ride, and Long Tall Sally. The concert is filmed by ABC Television and broadcast on April 18th. Included in the television transmission is footage of The Beatles receiving their poll awards from American crooner, Tony Bennett. Also performing are Freddie and the Dreamers, The Animals, The Kinks, The Searchers, The Seekers, Herman's Hermits, The Moody Blues, Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders, Donovan, Them, Cilla Black, Dusty Springfield, and Tom Jones.

1965–Fifty-one tornadoes strike the American midwest, killing 272 people and injuring 5,000 others.

1965–The 29th Golf Masters Championship: Jack Nicklaus wins, shooting a 271.

1966–Crooner, Frank Sinatra, records Strangers in the Night.

1966–NBC-TV broadcasts the last episode of the teen music TV series, Hullabaloo, which features Paul Anka, Lesley Gore, Peter and Gordon, and The Cyrkle. The show started in January 1965, a year after ABC-TV came up with the teen show Shindig!

1966–The 30th Golf Masters Championship: Jack Nicklaus wins, shooting a 288.

1966–Child actor, Mason Reese, is born in Los Angeles, California. He appeared in numerous television commercials in the 1970s, particularly for Underwood Deviled Ham, Post Raisin Bran, and Dunkin’ Donuts.

1966–Pop singer, Lisa Stansfield, is born in Manchester, England. She had a big hit with All Around the World.

1967–On the plane flight back from visiting The Beach Boys' Smile sessions in the America, Paul McCartney dreams up the idea for the film Magical Mystery Tour.

1968–President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968 into law, a week after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. It prohibits discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing.

1970–NASA launches lunar mission Apollo 13 from the Kennedy Space Center. The first two days are uneventful, but 56 hours into the mission, the crew hears a sharp bang and feels a vibration. Astronaut, James Lovell, looks out a window and sees that a gas is leaking from the spacecraft. It turns out that an oxygen tank had exploded, and there was a leak in the second tank. The mission was aborted 200,000 miles from Earth, in order to get the three astronauts home safely. They jerryrigged systems with plastic bags, cardboard, and tape to survive. The return trip took 85 hours, and it got as frigid as 38 degrees in the capsule, but they made it back to Earth. The duration of the mission was 5 days, 22 hours, and 54 minutes. This mission immortalized the phrase, "Houston, we have a problem."

1970–Author, John O'Hara, dies of cardiovascular disease in Princeton, New Jersey, at age 65. He first earned a reputation for short stories, then later became a best-selling novelist before the age of 30, with Appointment in Samarra and BUtterfield 8.

1971–The 35th Golf Masters Championship: Charles Coody wins, shooting a 279.

1972–The USSR conducts an underground nuclear test.

1972–First edition of the BBC comedy panel game I'm Sorry I Haven't a Clue is broadcast. It was one of the longest-running British radio shows in history.

1976–The Apple I computer is created.

1976–Rocker, Alice Cooper, is placed under house arrest in Australia. A Sydney promoter claims he's owed $59,000 for a 1975 Australian tour Cooper never fulfilled. The two come to an arrangement after it's revealed the promoter failed to live up to his end of the agreement.

1976–The 40th Golf Masters Championship: Ray Floyd wins, shooting a 271.

1977–London Transport's Silver Jubilee buses are launched.

1979–Ugandan dictator, Idi Amin, is deposed.

1981–President Ronald Reagan arrives home from the hospital after surviving an attempted assassination.

1981–A massive riot in Brixton, London, England, results in almost 300 police injuries and 65 serious civilian injuries.

1981–Actress, Valerie Bertinelli, marries rocker, Eddie Van Halen.

1982–The 46th Golf Masters Championship: Craig Stadler wins, shooting a 284.

1983–The 55th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Gandhi; Best Actor: Ben Kingsley for Gandhi; Best Actress: Meryl Streep for Sophie's Choice; Best Director: Richard Attenborough for Gandhi; Best Foreign Film: Begin the Beguine (Spain). The ceremonies are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles, California. The hosts are Liza Minnelli, Dudley Moore, Richard Pryor, and Walter Matthau.

1983–The 47th Golf Masters Championship: Seve Ballesteros wins, shooting a 280.

1983–Actress, Dolores Del Rio, dies from liver disease in Newport Beach, California, at age 77. She was a Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s, and one of the most important female figures of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s. She appeared in the films Bird of Paradise, Flying Down to Rio, Madame Du Barry, The Fugitive, Flaming Star, and Cheyenne Autumn.

1986–A gun battle takes place in broad daylight in Dade County, Florida, between two bank/armored car robbers & pursuing FBI agents. During the firefight, FBI Special Agents, Jerry L. Dove and Benjamin P. Grogan, are killed, while five other agents are wounded.

1987–The London Agreement is secretly signed between Israeli Foreign Affairs Minister, Shimon Peres, and King Hussein of Jordan.

1988–The 60th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: The Last Emperor; Best Actor: Michael Douglas for Wall Street; Best Actress: Cher for Moonstruck; Best Director: Bernardo Bertolucci for The Last Emperor; Best Foreign Film: Babette's Feast (Denmark). The ceremonies are held at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, California. The host is Chevy Chase.

1991–Film director, David Lean, dies in Limehouse, London, England, at age 83. His films include This Happy Breed, Blithe Spirit, Brief Encounter, Great Expectations, Oliver Twist, Hobson’s Coice, Summertime, The Bridge on the River Kwai, Lawrence of Arabia, Doctor Zhivago, Ryan’s Daughter, and A Passage to India.

1992–Euro-Disney opens near Paris, France.

1992–The Irish Republican Army bombs the financial district in London, England, killing three people.

1993–Four hundred fifty prisoners riot at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility in Lucasville, Ohio, and continue to do so for 10 days, citing grievances related to prison conditions, as well as the forced vaccination of Nation of Islam prisoners (for tuberculosis) against their religious beliefs.

1993–The 57th Golf Masters Championship: Bernhard Langer wins, shooting a 277.

1999–The 63rd Golf Masters Championship: José María Olazábal wins, shooting a 280.

2001–The detained crew of a U.S. EP-3E aircraft that landed in Hainan, China, is released.

2002–An attempted coup d'tat against President Hugo Chavez begins in Venezuela. Over 200,000 people march in Caracas towards the Presidential Palace of Miraflores, to demand the his resignation. Nineteen of the protesters are killed, and the Minister of Defense, Gral. Lucas Rincon, announces Hugo Chávez’s resignation on national TV.

2002–The al-Qaeda bombing of a synagogue in Ghriba, Tunisia, kills 21 people.

2003–Geophysicist and businessman, Cecil Howard Green, dies at age 102. He founded Texas Instruments.

2004–A double-decker bus collides with pedestrians in Ingoldmells, Lincolnshire, England, killing five people and injuring six others.

2004–The 68th Golf Masters Championship: Phil Mickelson wins, shooting a 279.

2006–Iranian President, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, announces that Iran has successfully enriched uranium.

2006–June Pointer, of The Pointer Sisters, dies of cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 52. The vocal group had hits with Yes We Can Can, He's So Shy, Slow Hand, I'm So Excited, Jump (for My Love), and Neutron Dance.

2007–Two bombings in the Algerian capital of Algiers kill 33 people and wound 222 others.

2007–Actress, Heather Locklear, divorces rock-star, Richie Sambora, due to irreconcilable differences after 11 years of marriage.

2007–Actor, Roscoe Lee Browne, dies of stomach cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 84. He was cast in numerous TV shows, including Mannix, Bonanza, All in the Family, Barney Miller, Starsky and Hutch, Soap, Cosby, and Law & Order. He appeared in the films Black Like Me, The Comedians, The Cowboys, Cisco Pike, The Worlds’s Greatest Athlete, Uptown Saturday Night, Legal Eagles, Jumpin’ Jack Flash, The Mambo Kings, Naked in New York, and Hamlet.

2007–Sci-fi writer, Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., dies from head trauma in Manhattan, New York, at age 84. He is best known for his cynical, satirical novels that highlight the ironies of our modern civilization. He wrote Slaughterhouse-Five, Breakfast of Champions, Slapstick, and Hocus Pocus.

2010–The 74th Golf Masters Championship: Phil Mickelson wins, shooting a 272.

2011–An explosion in the Minsk Metro in the Republic of Belarus, kills 15 people and injures 204 others.

2012–An 8.6 earthquake and an 8.2 aftershock occurs off the coast of Indonesia. Ten people are killed, 12 others are injured, and a non-destructive tsunami is observed on the island of Nias.

2012–Soldier and revolutionary, Ahmed Ben Bella, dies of respiratory illnesses in Algiers, Algeria, at age 93. He was the first President of Algeria.

2013–Fossilized dinosaur eggs with embryos are discovered in China.

2013–Comedian, Jonathan Winters, dies of natural causes in Montecito, California, at age 87. Winters was famous for his groundbreaking improv work and mimicry skills that inspired younger generation comedians such as Robin Williams and Jim Carrey. He appeared in the films It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World, the Loved One, Penelope, Viva Max!, The Fish That Saved Pittsburgh, and Moon Over Parador.

2014–Singer-songwriter, Jesse Winchester, dies of bladder cancer in Charlottesville, Virginia, at age 69. His highest-charting recordings were of his own songs Yankee Lady and Say What.

2015–Authorities in Oregon intercept what is left of a Japanese fishing trawler, one of the many properties damaged during the 2011 tsunami. The boat piece had some yellowtail jack fish aboard, specimens normally only found in Japanese waters. About five million tons of debris was swept out into the ocean by the tsunami. The first piece of Japanese debris started to make landfall as early as 2012. Artifacts from the killer tsunami continue to find their way to the U.S., including pieces of sacred shrines.

2017–J. Geils, of The J. Geils Band, dies of undeclosed causes in Groton, Massachusetts, at age 71. The group’s biggest hit was Centerfold.

2017–Dorothy Mengering, better known as “David Letterman’s Mom,” dies in Carmel, Indiana, at age 95. She was a frequent telephone and live guest on his show Late Night with David Letterman.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Emperor Septimius Severus; Anawrahta Minsaw; an execution for witchcraft; the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam; an Olivetti typewriter; a dress by Oleg Cassini that was worn by Jackie Kennedy; Ethel Kennedy; Louise Lasser; Prince Rainier III of Monaco; The Beatles at the New Musical Express 1964-1965 Annual Poll Winners' All-Star Concert at the Empire Pool in Wembley, London, England; Lisa Stansfield; the Apple I computer; Dolores Del Rio; Bernhard Langer; June Pointer; and Jonathan Winters.

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