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1872–The first Arbor Day is observed in Nebraska. It was proposed by J. Sterling Morton and publicized by the State Board of Agriculture as a tree-planting holiday. At that time Nebraska was basically a treeless plain, with nothing to break the wind. Trees would also be needed for fuel, shade, building houses, etc. Estimates are that more than one million trees were planted in Nebraska on that first Arbor Day.

401–Roman Emperor, Theodosius II, is born Flavius Theodosius Iunior in Rome. He is mostly known for promulgating the Theodosian law code, and for the construction of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople.

428–Nestorius becomes the Patriarch of Constantinople.

837–Halley's Comet makes its closest approach to Earth at a distance equal to 0.0342 AU (3.2 million miles).

847–St. Leo IV begins his reign as Catholic Pope.

879–French King, Louis the Stammerer, dies in battle at age 32. He was the King of Aquitaine and later, King of West Francia. Louis III and Carloman II become Kings of the Western Franks.

1216–Eric X of Sweden dies suddenly of natural causes at Näs Castle on the island of Visingsö, at age 36.

1270–Haakon V of Norway is born Haakon V Magnusson in Norway.

1407–Lama Deshin Shekpa visits the Ming Dynasty capital at Nanjing. He is awarded with the title “Great Treasure Prince of Dharma.”

1472–Margaret of York is born at Winchester Castle, Hampshire, England.

1500–Ludovico Sforza is captured by Swiss troops at Novara, and is handed over to the French.

1512–James V of Scotland is born at Linlithgow Palace, Linlithgow, Scotland.

1516–The first ghetto is created, as Jews are compelled to live in a specific area of Venice, Italy.

1533–Frederick I of Denmark dies at Gottorp Castle in Schleswig, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, at age 61.

1585–Pope Gregory XIII dies in Rome, Papal States, at age 83. He is best known for commissioning and being the namesake for the Gregorian calendar, which remains the internationally accepted civil calendar to this day.

1606–The Virginia Company of London is established by royal charter by James I of England, with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.

1633–Bananas are displayed in the shop window of English merchant, Thomas Johnson. This is the first time the banana had ever been seen in Great Britain. It would be more than 200 years before they would be regularly imported.

1710–The first law regulating copyright is issued in Great Britain.

1755–Physician, Samuel Hahnemann, is born Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann in Meissen, Electorate of Saxony. He is the originator of Homeopathy.

1790–The U.S. Patent system is established.

1790–Robert Gray is the first American to circumnavigate the Earth.

1796–James Bowie, American pioneer and soldier, is born.

1809–The War of the Fifth Coalition begins when forces of the Austrian Empire invade Bavaria.

1815–The largest volcanic eruption in recorded history occurs at Mount Tambora, on the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. The explosion is heard more than 1,200 miles away on the island of Sumatra, with heavy volcanic ash falls observed as far away as Borneo, Sulawesi, and Java. The death toll is estimated to be 71,000 people, of which approximately 12,000 are killed by the eruption itself. As a result of the volcanic ash generated by the eruption, 1816 would become known as the “Year Without Summer,” as volcanic winter descended on the Northern hemisphere. Widespread crop failure and livestock deaths throughout Europe and North America resulted in the worst famine of the 19th Century.

1816–The Federal government of the United States approves the creation of the Second Bank of the United States.

1821–Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople is hanged from the main gate of the Patriarchate by the Ottoman government and his body is thrown into the Bosphorus.

1825–The first hotel opens in Hawaii.

1826–The 10,500 inhabitants of the Greek town of Missolonghi begin leaving the town after a year's siege by Turkish forces. Very few of them survive.

1827–Politician, Lew Wallace is born in Brookville, Indiana. Wallace served as Governor of the New Mexico Territory at the time of the Lincoln County War and worked to bring an end to the fighting. The story of the Lincoln County War is told in the film Young Guns, and Wallace was played by actor, Scott Wilson. As an author, Wallace is best known for his historical novel, Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ, a bestselling book since its publication in 1880.

1829–William Booth, founder of The Salvation Army, is born in Sneinton, Nottingham, England. The Christian movement, with a quasi-military structure and government founded in 1865, has spread from London, England, to many parts of the world and is known for being one of the largest distributors of humanitarian aid.

1841–The New York Tribune begins publishing under editor Horace Greeley.

1845–More than 1,000 buildings are damaged by fire in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

1847–Journalist and newspaper publisher, Joseph Pulitzer, is born József Pulitzer in Makó, Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire. He came to the U.S. at the age of 17. He was publisher of the St. Louis Post Dispatch and the New York World. Pulitzer introduced the techniques of yellow journalism (a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news) to the newspapers he acquired in the 1880s. He became a leading national figure in the Democratic Party and was elected congressman from New York. He crusaded against big business and corruption, and helped keep the Statue of Liberty in New York. Perhaps he is best known for establishing the Pulitzer Prizes, which were established in 1917, by money he bequeathed to Columbia University to recognize artistic and journalistic achievements in the United States. The prizes are given annually to award achievements in American journalism and photography, as well as literature and history, poetry, music, and drama. Pulitzer also founded the Columbia School of Journalism by his philanthropic bequest, which opened in 1912.

1849–The safety pin is patented by Walter Hunt in New York City.

1856–The Theta Chi fraternity is founded at Norwich University in Vermont.

1858–Big Ben, a 13.76-ton bell, is recast in the Tower of Westminster in London, England.

1864–Archduke Maximilian of Habsburg, Austria, is elected Emperor of Mexico.

1865–The last photograph of Abraham Lincoln is taken.

1865–A day after his surrender to Union forces, Confederate General Robert E. Lee addresses his troops for the last time during the Civil War.

1866–The American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is established in New York City by Henry Bergh.

1868–At Arogee in Abyssinia, British and Indian forces defeat an army of Emperor Tewodros II. While 700 Ethiopians are killed and many more injured, only two British/Indian troops die.

1872–The first Arbor Day is observed in Nebraska. It was proposed by J. Sterling Morton and publicized by the State Board of Agriculture as a tree-planting holiday. At that time Nebraska was basically a treeless plain, with nothing to break the wind. Trees would also be needed for fuel, shade, building houses, etc. Estimates are that more than one million trees were planted in Nebraska on that first Arbor Day.

1887–Abraham Lincoln is re-buried near his wife in Springfield, Illinois.

1887–On Easter Sunday, Pope Leo XIII authorizes the establishment of the Catholic University of America.

1904–British mystic, Aleister Crowley, transcribes the third and final chapter of The Book of the Law.

1904–Isabel II of Spain dies in Paris, France, at age 73.

1906–O. Henry's second short story collection, The Four Million, is published. The collection includes one of his most beloved stories, “The Gift of the Magi,” about a poor, but devoted, couple who sacrifice their most valuable possessions to buy a gift for each other.

1911–Orchestra leader, Martin Denny, is born in New York, New York. He was a piano-player and composer best known as the "Father of Exotica." His biggest hit was Quiet Village, which reached #2 on the Billboard charts in 1959.

1912–The oceanliner, RMS Titanic, sets sail from Southampton, England, for the first and only time.

1912–Politician, Roy (Mark) Hofheinz, engineer of the Houston Astrodome, is born in Beaumont, Texas. He was part of the group that created a Major League Baseball franchise, the Houston Colt .45s (which later became the Houston Astros), and built the Harris County Domed Stadium (known as the Astrodome) the first large covered baseball and football facility in the world.

1915–Actor, Harry Morgan, is born Harry Bratsberg in Detroit, Michigan. He is best known for his co-starring roles on the TV shows December Bride, Pete & Gladys, Dragnet, and M*A*S*H. He appeared in the films Orchestra Wives, The Ox-Bow Incident, State Fair, The Big Clock, Holiday Affair, Bend of the River, High Noon, Torch Song, The Glenn Miller Story, Not as a Stranger, Pete Kelly’s Blues, Inherit the Wind, How the West Was Won, Patton, and The Shootist.

1916–The Professional Golfers Association of America (PGA) is created in New York City. And the first professional golf tournament is held.

1916–Vernon (Elvis) Presley, the father of Elvis Presley, is born in Tupelo, Mississippi.

1919–Revolution leader, Emiliano Zapata, is ambushed and shot dead by government forces in Chinameca, Morelos, Mexico, at age 39.

1921–Actor, Chuck Connors, is born Kevin Joseph Connors in Brooklyn, New York. He is best known for the role of Lucas McCain on the long-running Western series The Rifleman. He appeared in the films Pat and Mike, Target Zero, Good Morning, Miss Dove, Hot Rod Girl, Hold Back the Night, Designing Woman, Old Yeller, The Big Country, Geronimo, Flipper, Move Over, Darling, Ride Beyond Vengeance, Support Your Local Gunfighter, The Mad Bomber, Soylent Green, and Nightmare in Badham County.

1921–Actor and singer, Sheb Wooley, is born Shelby F. Wooley in Erick, Oklahoma. He is best known for his 1958 novelty song The Purple People Eater and the co-starring role of Pete Nolan in the TV Western series Rawhide. He appeared in the films Apache Drums, Little Big Horn, High Noon, Cattle Town, The Lusty Men, Johnny Guitar, Giant, Rio Bravo, The War Wagon, The Outlaw Josey Wales, Silverado, and Hoosiers.

1923–Actress, Jane Kean, is born in Hartford, Connecticut. She is best known for the role of Trixie Norton on the TV show The Honeymooners.

1924–Tubular steel golf club shafts are approved for championship play.

1925–F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby is published in New York, by Charles Scribner's & Sons. Although generally well-received by critics, sales of his newest work are disappointing.

1926–Country singer, ”Alvin” Junior Samples, is born in Cummings, Georgia.

1927–Astrologer, Joan (Ceciel) Quigley, is born in Kansas City, Missouri. She is best known for providing astrological advice to the Reagan White House in the 1980s. She was called on by First Lady, Nancy Reagan, in 1981, after John Hinckley's attempted assassination of the President, and stayed on as the White House astrologer in secret, until being outed in 1988, by former Chief of staff, Donald Regan.

1929–Actor, Max Von Sydow, is born Carl Adolf von Sydow in Lund, Sweden. He appeared in the films The Seventh Seal, Wild Strawberries, The Magician, The Mistress, 4x4, The Greatest Story Ever Told, Hawaii, The Quiller Memorandum, The Emigrants, The Exorist, Three Days of the Condor, Conan the Barbarian, Dreamscape, Dune, Hannah and Her Sisters, Awakenings, A Kiss Before Dying, and What Dreams May Come.

1930–Synthetic rubber goes into production.

1930–Labor leader, Dolores Huerta, is born in the small mining town of Dawson, New Mexico. In the early 1960s, Huerta, along with Cesar Chavez, founded the United Farm Workers union.

1931–Lebanese-born philosophical essayist, novelist, mystic poet, and artist, Kahlil Gibran, dies in New York, New York, at age 48. His most popular work, The Prophet has been translated into more than a dozen languages.

1932–Paul von Hindenburg is elected first President of Germany.

1932–Poet and painter, Adrian Henri, President of The Liverpool Academy of Arts, is born in Birkenhead, Cheshire, England.

1932–Actor, Omar Sharif, is born Michel Demitri Chalhoub in Alexandria, Egypt. He appeared in the films Lawrence of Arabia, The Fall of the Roman Empire, Behold a Pale Horse, The Yellow Rolls-Royce, Doctor Zhivago, The Poppy Is Also a Flower, Funny Girl, Mackenna’s Gold, The Appointment, The Tamarind Seed, Juggernaut, Funny Lady, Top Secret!, and Hidalgo.

1933–President Franklin D. Roosevelt establishes the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), an innovative federally funded organization that puts thousands of Americans to work on projects with environmental benefits during the Great Depression. Known as “Roosevelt’s Tree Army,” the project is open to unemployed, unmarried, U.S. male citizens between the ages of 18 and 26. Under the guidance of the Departments of the Interior and Agriculture, CCC employees fought forest fires, planted trees, cleared and maintained access roads, re-seeded grazing lands, and implemented soil-erosion controls. They built wildlife refuges, fish-rearing facilities, water storage basins, and animal shelters. To encourage citizens to get out and enjoy America’s natural resources, FDR authorized the CCC to build bridges and campground facilities. From 1933 to 1942, the CCC employed over three million men. Of Roosevelt’s many “New Deal” policies, the CCC is considered by many to be one of the most enduring and successful. It provided the model for future state and federal conservation programs. In 1942, the U.S. Congress discontinued appropriations for the CCC, diverting the desperately needed funds to the effort to win World War II.

1934–The Stanley Cup: The Chicago Blackhawks beats the Detroit Red Wings, 3 games to 1.

1935–Severe dust storms across Iowa and Kansas call for the closing of schools, highways, and railroads. The sky is almost as dark as night at times during the daylight hours.

1938–A syphilis test is now mandatory to get a marriage license in New York.

1938–Football player and sportscaster, (Joseph) Don Meredith, is born in Mount Vernon, Texas. He spent all nine seasons of his professional playing career (1960-1968) with the Dallas Cowboys of the National Football League (NFL). As an original member of the Monday Night Football broadcast team on ABC-TV, he played the role of Howard Cosell's comic foil.

1941–In World War II, the Axis powers establish the Independent State of Croatia.

1941–Novelist, Paul (Edward) Theroux, is born in Medford, Massachusetts. His works include Waldo, Jungle Lovers, Saint Jack, The Mosquito Coast, and Doctor Slaughter.

1942–Cigarettes and candy are rationed in Holland.

1944–Henry Ford II is named Executive Vice President of the Ford Motor Company.

1944–Rudolf Vrba and Alfréd Wetzler escape from Auschwitz II-Birkenau death camp in Germany.

1945–U.S. troops land on Tsugen Shima, Okinawa.

1945–The Allies liberate the first Nazi concentration camp, in Buchenwald, Czechoslovakia.

1948–United Nations Security Council Resolution 45 recommends that the Union of Burma be admitted to the UN.

1949–The 13th Golf Masters Championship: Sam Snead wins, shooting a 282.

1952–Actor, Steven (Frederic) Seagal, is born in Lansing, Michigan. Seagal began his adult life as a martial arts instructor in Japan, becoming the first foreigner to operate an Aikido dojo in the country. He appeared in the films Hard to Kill, Out for Justice, Under Siege, Executive Decision, The Patriot, Into the Sun, and Black Dawn. He was married to actress, Kelly Le Brock.

1953–Warner Bros. premieres House of Wax, the first 3D film from a major American studio.

1953–Singer, Eddie Fisher, is discharged from the U.S. Army. He sold seven million records while he was in the service.

1953–The 7th NBA Championship: The Minneapolis Lakers beat the New York Knicks, 4 games to 1.

1954–Actor, Peter MacNicol, is born in Dallas, Texas. He is best known for the role of John Cage on the TV series Ally McBeal. He appeared in the films Dragonslayer, Sophie’s Choice, Heat, Hard Promises, Housesitter, and Radioland Murders.

1954–Television journalist, Juan Williams, is born in Colón, Panama. He is a political analyst for Fox News Channel. He also writes for several newspapers including The Washington Post, The New York Times, and The Wall Street Journal, and has been published in magazines such as The Atlantic Monthly and Time. He was a senior news analyst for National Public Radio (NPR) from 1999 until October 2010.

1954–Auguste Lumiere, French photographer and film pioneer, dies in Lyon, France, at age 81.

1955–The 19th Golf Masters Championship: Cary Middlecoff wins, shooting a 279.

1955–The 9th NBA Championship: The Syracuse Nats beat the Ft. Wayne Pistons, 4 games to 3.

1956–Leo Fender patents the Stratocaster guitar.

1956–The Stanley Cup: The Montreal Canadiens beats the Detroit Red Wings, 4 games to 1.

1956–Baseball player, Clarence Beaumont, the first batter in first World Series, dies at age 75.

1957–The USSR conducts an atmospheric nuclear test.

1957–The Suez Canal is reopened for all shipping after being closed for three months.

1957–Teen idol, Ricky Nelson, sings for the first time on the TV series The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet. He performs Fats Domino's I'm Walkin'. Within one week of the broadcast, Nelson’s record will sell half a million copies.

1958–Bluesman, W.C. Handy, dies in New York. New York. Known as “Father of the Blues,” Handy was the first to use the term “blues” in a song title. He wrote such standards as St. Louis Blues and Beale Street Blues.

1959–Japan's Crown Prince Akihito marries commoner, Michiko Shoda.

1959–Singer and record producer, Babyface, is born Kenneth Brian Edmonds in Indianapolis, Indiana. In the late 1980s, he contributed to the creation of new jack swing, writing and producing music for Bobby Brown, Karyn White, Pebbles, Paula Abdul, and Sheena Easton. He has produced and written music for many artists including Carole King, Patti LaBelle, Chaka Khan, Aretha Franklin, Madonna, Janet Jackson, Al Green, Beyoncé, Diana Ross, Toni Braxton, Michael Jackson, Michael Bolton, Eric Clapton, Whitney Houston, Brandy, Mary J. Blige, Céline Dion, Mariah Carey, En Vogue, Lil Wayne, P!nk, TLC, N'SYNC, and Phil Collins.

1959–Rocker, Brian Setzer, of The Stray Cats, is born in Massapequa Park, New York. The rockabilly group had hits with Rock This House and Stray Cat Strut. He went on to create The Brian Setzer Orchestra.

1960–The U.S. Senate passes the landmark Civil Rights bill.

1960–The 24th Golf Masters Championship: Arnold Palmer wins, shooting a 282.

1961–The 25th Golf Masters Championship: Gary Player wins, shooting a 280.

1962–Artist, Stuart Sutcliffe, dies from a brain hemorrhage in Hamburg, Germany, at age 21. Sutcliffe met John Lennon when the two were at art school and he introduced John to modern art and literature, while Lennon introduced Stu to rock and roll. As John’s closest friend, he was persuaded to join The Beatles as their bass player (Paul McCartney was on rhythm guitar at the time). In 1961, he left the band to resume painting and live with his German girlfriend, Astrid Kirchherr, but by that time, his chronic headaches were becoming extremely severe.

1962–Film director, Michael Curtiz, dies of cancer in Hollywood, California, at age 75. His films include Angels with Dirty Faces, Dodge City, Santa Fe Trail, Casablanca, Yankee Doodle Dandy, Mildred Pierce, Romance on the High Seas, I’ll See You in My Dreams, The Jazz Singer, White Christmas, We’re No Angels, King Creole, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, and The Comancheros.

1963–The USS Thresher, an atomic submarine, sinks in the Atlantic Ocean, killing the entire crew. One hundred and twenty-nine sailors and civilians are lost when the sub unexpectedly plunges to the sea floor, 300 miles off the coast of New England.

1963–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1965–An English schoolteacher chides parents who permit their children to wear corduroy trousers in the style of the rock group, The Rolling Stones.

1965–Actress, Linda Darnell, dies from burns received in a house fire in Chicago, Illinois, at age 41. She appeared in the films Star Dust, Brigham Young, The Mark of Zorro, Blood and Sand, The Song of Bernadette, Sweet and Low-Down, Anna and the King of Siam, and A Letter to Three Wives.

1966–Writer, Evelyn Waugh, dies of heart failure in Combe Florey, Somerset, England, at age 62. His most famous works include the early satires Decline and Fall and A Handful of Dust, the novel Brideshead Revisited, and the World War II trilogy Sword of Honour.

1967–The 13-day strike by the American Federation of Radio-TV Artists (AFTRA) comes to an end less than two hours before the 39th Academy Awards presentation is set to air.

1967–The 39th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: A Man for All Seasons; Best Actor: Paul Scofield for A Man for All Seasons; Best Actress: Elizabeth Taylor for Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?; Best Director: Fred Zinnemann for A Man for All Seasons; Best Foreign Film: A Man and a Woman (France). The ceremonies are held at the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Santa Monica, California. The host is Bob Hope.

1968–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1968–The 40th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: In the Heat of the Night; Best Actor: Rod Steiger for In the Heat of the Night; Best Actress: Katharine Hepburn for Guess Who's Coming to Dinner; Best Director: Mike Nichols for The Graduate; Best Foreign Film: Closely Watched Trains (Czechoslovakia). The ceremonies are held at the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Santa Monica, California. The host is Bob Hope. Originally scheduled for April 8th, the awards were postponed for two days because of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Ironically, the Best Picture of 1967, In the Heat of the Night, and nominee Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner, have racial themes. This telecast was the first to feature actual film clips from the nominated films, and the “film parade” to highlight the Best Picture nominees and has been the norm ever since.

1969–Automobile designer, Harley J. Earl, dies from a stroke in West Palm Beach, Florida, at age 75. He was the initial designated Head of Design at General Motors, later becoming Vice President, the first top executive ever appointed in Design of a major corporation in American history.

1970–At a public news conference, Paul McCartney announces that he is leaving The Beatles, one week before the U.K. release of his solo album, McCartney. The world is shocked at hearing the news about the most influential rock group in history. John Lennon, who had kept his much-earlier decision to leave The Beatles quiet for the sake of the others, is furious, feeling justifiably betrayed by McCartney's actions. Lennon remarks: “Paul hasn’t left. I sacked him.”

1970–Keith Emerson of The Nice, Greg Lake of King Crimson, and Carl Palmer of Atomic Rooster, join forces to form the progressive rock band, Emerson, Lake and Palmer.

1971–In an attempt to thaw relations with the United States, the People's Republic of China hosts the U.S. table tennis team for a week-long visit.

1972–The United States, the USSR, and 70 other nations agree to ban biological weapons.

1972–For the first time since November 1967, American B-52 bombers reportedly begin bombing North Vietnam.

1972–Tombs containing bamboo slips, among them Sun Tzu's Art of War and Sun Bin's lost military treatise, are accidentally discovered by construction workers in Shandong.

1972–A 7.0 earthquake kills one fifth of the population of the Iranian province of Fars.

1972–The 44th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: The French Connection; Best Actor: Gene Hackman for The French Connection; Best Actress: Jane Fonda for Klute; Best Director: William Friedkin for The French Connection; Best Foreign Film: The Garden of the Finzi-Continis (Italy). The ceremonies are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles, California. The hosts are Helen Hayes, Alan King, Jack Lemmon, and Sammy Davis, Jr. This is the first time in the history of the Awards where the nominees are shown on superimposed pictures while being announced. As part of his first visit to America in 20 years, British film pioneer, Charlie Chaplin, accepts an honorary Academy Award for his “incalculable contribution to the art of filmmaking.” Chaplin, once America's most successful movie star and director, had left the country under a storm of controversy in 1952.

1973–A British Vickers Vanguard turboprop aircraft crashes in a snowstorm at Basel, Switzerland, killing 104 people.

1974–Magicians Penn and Teller meet for the first time.

1975–Peter Frampton's, Frampton Comes Alive!, tops the album chart, where it will remain for the next 10 weeks.

1975–Actress, Marjorie Main, dies of lung cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 85. She is best known for the role of Ma Kettle in a series of 10 “Ma and Pa Kettle” movies. She also appeared in the films Stella Dallas, The Women, A Woman’s Face, Heaven Can Wait, Meet Me in St. Louis, The Harvey Girls, Summer Stock, and Friendly Persuasion.

1977–The 41st Golf Masters Championship: Tom Watson wins, shooting a 276.

1978–Volkswagen becomes the first non-American automobile manufacturer to build cars in America, opening a plant in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania.

1979–A tornado hits Wichita Falls, Texas, killing 42 people.

1981–Imprisoned IRA hunger striker, Bobby Sands, wins election to the British Parliament.

1981–France conducts a nuclear test.

1986–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1988–The Ojhri Camp explosion kills or injures more than 1,000 people in Rawalpindi and Islamabad.

1988–The 52nd Golf Masters Championship: Sandy Lyle wins, shooting a 281.

1988–Actor, Haley Joel Osment, is born in Los Angeles, California. He appeared in the films Forrest Gump, Mixed Nuts, The Sixth Sense, Pay It Forward, Spot the Dog, A.I. Artificial Intelligence, Secondhand Lions, and Entourage.

1989–H.J. Heinz, Van Camp Seafood, and Bumble Bee Seafood announce that they will not buy tuna caught in nets that also trap dolphins.

1989–The Intel Corporation announces the shipment of the 80486 chip.

1990–The "Minor Planet Circular" announces a citation approving the naming of four new asteroids after The Beatles, that were discovered by astronomer B.A. Skiff. The asteroid names are (4147) Lennon, discovered 01-12-83; (4148) McCartney, discovered 07-11-83; (4149) Harrison, discovered 03-9-84; and (4150) Starr, discovered 08-31-84. To name an asteroid, the discoverer suggests a name of 16 characters or less. The suggested name is forwarded to the International Astronomical Union's Small Bodies Names Committee, along with a brief argument as to why that name is appropriate. If an asteroid has not been named after ten years of its discovery, anyone can propose a name. The asteroid, Jerry Garcia, got its name from an email campaign started by a fan. Other asteroids have subsequently been named after musicians: Eric Clapton, Carlos Santana, Frank Zappa, Jean Michel Jarre, and Mike Oldfield.

1990–The International Joint Commission demands that Canada and the U.S. stop dumping toxic substances into the Great Lakes.

1991–Horn & Hardardt closes the last of its “automats” (coin-operated cafeterias) in New York City.

1991–Italian ferry, MS Moby Prince, collides with an oil tanker in dense fog near Livorno, Italy, killing 140 people.

1991–A rare tropical storm develops in the South Atlantic Ocean near Angola. It is the first such storm to be documented by satellites.

1991–Actor, Kevin Peter Hall, dies of AIDS-related pneumonia in Hollywood, California, at age 35. He had contracted HIV from a blood transfusion. He appeared in the films Without Warning, Monster in the Closet, Harry and the Hendersons, Predator, and Big Top Pee-wee.

1991–Actress, Natalie Schafer, dies of cancer in Beverly Hills, California, at age 90. She is best known for the role Eunice "Lovey" Wentworth Howell on the sitcom Gilligan's Island. She appeared in the films The Snake Pit, Female on the Beach, Forever, Darling, Bernardine, Back Street, and Susan Slade.

1992–Comedian, Sam Kinison, dies in a head-on car accident about 15 miles northwest of Needles, California, at age 38. According to his brother, Bill, Kinison's final words were, "Why now? I don't want to die. Why?" At the time of the collision, Kinison was traveling to Laughlin, Nevada, to perform at a sold-out show. He was known for his harsh and politically incorrect humor. A former Pentecostal preacher, he performed stand-up routines that were most often characterized by an intense style, similar to enthusiastic preachers, punctuated by his trademark scream.

1994–In Seattle, Washington, 10,000 people gather for a vigil for the late Kurt Cobain. His wife, Courtney Love, thanks them for their support and tearfully reads from Cobain's suicide note.

1994–The 58th Golf Masters Championship: Jose M. Olazabal wins, shooting a 279.

1994–Victor Afanasiev, Editor-in-Chief of Pravda (1976-1989), dies at age 71.

1995–New York City bans smoking in all restaurants that seat 35 or more.

1995–Morarji Desai, Prime Minister of India (1977-1979), dies in New Delhi, Delhi, India, at age 99.

1996–Jessica Dubroff, attempting to be the youngest airplane pilot, dies in a crash in Cheyenne, Wyoming, at age 7. Although billed by the media as a "pilot," Dubroff did not possess a medical certificate or a student pilot certificate, since they require a minimum age of 16, or a pilot certificate which requires a minimum age of 17, according to U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations.

1998–The Northern Ireland peace talks conclude as negotiators reach a landmark settlement to end 30 years of bitter rivalries and bloody attacks, as Britain's direct rule of Ireland is ended.

2000–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: Staff of The Denver Post for its clear and balanced coverage of the student massacre at Columbine High School; Fiction: Interpreter of Maladies by Jhumpa Lahiri (Mariner Books/Houghton Mifflin); Drama: Dinner With Friends by Donald Margulies (TCG); Non-Fiction: Embracing Defeat–Japan in the Wake of World War II by John W. Dower (W.W. Norton & Company); History: Freedom From Fear–The American People in Depression and War 1929-1945 by David M. Kennedy (Oxford University Press); Biography or Autobiography: Vera (Mrs. Vladimir Nabokov) by Stacy Schiff (Random House); Poetry: Repair by C.K. Williams (Farrar); Photography: Photo Staff of The Denver Rocky Mountain News for its powerful collection of emotional images taken after the student shootings at Columbine High School; Music: Life is a Dream, Opera in Three Acts–Act II, Concert Version by Lewis Spratlan (G. Schirmer/AMP).

2000–Actor, Larry Linville, dies of cancer in New York, New York, at age 60. He was best known for the role of Major Frank Burns in the long-running TV series M*A*S*H.

2003–Pop singer, Little Eva, dies of cancer Kinston, North Carolina, at age 59. She had a big hit with the song Locomotion.

2005–The 69th Golf Masters Championship: Tiger Woods wins, shooting a 276.

2009–President of Fiji, Ratu Josefa Iloilo, announces he has abrogated the constitution and assumes all governance in the country, creating a constitutional crisis.

2010–Polish Air Force Tu-154M crashes near Smolensk, Russia, killing 96 people, including Polish President Lech Kaczynski and dozens of other senior officials.

2010–Actress, Dixie Carter, dies of endometrial cancer in Houston, Texas, at age 70. She is best known for role of Julia Sugarbaker on the sitcom Designing Women.

2011–The 75th Golf Masters Championship: Charl Schwartzel wins, shooting a 274.

2012–Apple, Inc. claims to have a value of $600 billion.

2013–Blues musician, Jimmy Dawkins, dies at age 76.

2014–Kathleen Sebelius resigns as Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, in light of fallout from the botched rollout of HealthCare.gov.

2014–The 29th Annual Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony is held. This year’s inductees are: (Performers) Cat Stevens, Daryl Hall and John Oates, Nirvana, KISS, Linda Ronstadt, and Peter Gabriel; (Non-Performer) Andrew Loog Oldham and Brian Epstein; (Sidemen) No awards given; and (Early Influence) No awards given. A special award is given to The E Street Band. The ceremony takes place at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum in Cleveland, Ohio.

2016–The price of U.S. postal stamps drop for the first time in nearly 100 years. The price will decrease from 49¢ to 47¢ for a standard letter. The change is due to a temporary price hike granted to the U.S. Postal Service in 2014 that has expired. The last time the U.S. postage rate dropped was in 1919.

2016–The Taliban, in a statement claiming responsibility for rocket attacks into Kabul, Afghanistan, says the intended target was U.S. Secretary of State, John Kerry, who was in the capital to help defuse a crisis within the unity government. Kerry had departed less than an hour earlier.

2016–Macedonian police fire tear gas at refugees as they attempt to break through a fence at the Greece-Macedonia border near Idomeni, sparking clashes that injures 200 people.

2016–A devastating Paravur temple accident occurs, in which a fire caused by an explosion of firecrackers stored for Vishu, kills more than 100 people out of the thousands gathered for the seventh day of Bhadrakali worship.

2016–A 6.6 earthquake west-southwest of Ashkasham, shakes up India, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Srinagar, and Pakistan.

2017–President Donald Trump's pick for the U.S. Supreme Court, Neil Gorsuch, is sworn in at the White House.

2017–The Australian Research Council reports that two thirds of the Great Barrier Reef have suffered from severe coral bleaching.

2017–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: East Bay Times staff for relentless coverage of the ‘Ghost Ship’ fire, which killed 36 people at a warehouse party; Fiction: The Underground Railroad by Colson Whitehead; Drama: Sweat by Lynn Nottage; Non-Fiction: Evicted–Poverty and Profit in the American City by Matthew Desmond; History: Blood in the Water–The Attica Prison Uprising of 1971 and Its Legacy by Heather Ann Thompson; Biography or Autobiography: The Return by Hisham Matar; Poetry: Olio by Tyehimba Jess; Photography: E. Jason Wambsgans of The Chicago Tribune; Music: Angel's Bone by Du Yun.

2017–Singer, Linda Hopkins, dies in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, at age 92. She recorded classic, traditional, and urban blues, and performed R&B and soul, jazz, and show tunes.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: French King, Louis the Stammerer; Samuel Hahnemann; Salvation Army logo; the last photograph of Abraham Lincoln; Martin Denny; The Purple People Eater by Sheb Wooley; Max Von Sydow; the Civilian Conservation Corps logo; Paul Theroux; Peter MacNicol; Ricky Nelson sings I'm Walkin' on the TV series The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet; Stuart Sutcliffe; Linda Darnell; poster for Guess Who's Coming to Dinner; poster for Klute; the 1978 Volkswagen Beetle; asteroids; Sam Kinison; Jessica Dubroff on the cover of People magazine; Dixie Carter ; and The Underground Railroad by Colson Whitehead.

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