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1889–Oklahoma Territory lands formerly reserved for Native Americans are opened to white homesteaders by President Harrison. At high noon, thousands rush to claim land in the Land Run of 1889. Within hours, the cities of Oklahoma City and Guthrie are formed with populations of at least 10,000.



238–In the Year of the Six Emperors, the Roman Senate outlaws Emperor Maximinus Thrax for his bloodthirsty proscriptions in Rome, and nominates two of its members, Pupienus and Balbinus, to the throne.

296–Pope Caius dies in Rome, Western Roman Empire. His legend states that he took refuge in the catacombs of Rome and died a martyr.

536–Pope Agapetus I dies in Constantinople, Eastern Roman Empire.

591–Peter III of Raqqa dies at Monastery of Gubba Barraya, Byzantine Empire.

846–Emperor Wuzong of Tang dies in China, at age 31. In the latter part of his life, he began taking pills made by Taoist alchemists, which were intended to lead to immortality: it was said that his mood became harsh and unpredictable as a side effect. By late 845, he was seriously ill.

1370–Construction begins on the Bastille fortress in Paris, France.

1451–Isabella I of Castile is born in Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Spain.

1500–Portuguese navigator, Pedro Alvarez Cabral, discovers Brazil.

1509–King Henry VIII ascends to the English throne.

1518–Antoine of Navarre is born in La Fère, Picardy, France. He was the King of Navarre through his marriage to Queen Jeanne III. He was the father of Henry IV of France.

1519–Spanish conquistador, Hernán Cortés, establishes a settlement at Veracruz, Mexico.

1529–The Treaty of Zaragoza divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal along a line 17° east of the Moluccas.

1610–Pope Alexander VIII is born Pietro Vito Ottoboni in Venice, Republic of Venice.

1616–Miguel de Cervantes dies in Madrid, Spain, at age 68. His major work, Don Quixote, considered to be the first modern European novel, is a classic of Western literature, and is regarded amongst the best works of fiction ever written.

1707–Novelist, Henry Fielding, is born in Sharpham, Somerset, England. He is the author of Tom Jones. Aside from his literary achievements, he has a significant place in the history of law enforcement, having founded (with his half-brother, John) what some have called London, England's first police force, the Bow Street Runners, using his authority as a magistrate.

1711–Eleazar Wheelock, founder of Dartmouth College, is born in Windham, Connecticut. Before founding Dartmouth, Wheelock had founded and run the Moor's Charity School in Connecticut, to educate Native Americans. The college was primarily for the sons of English colonists.

1724–German philosopher, Immanuel Kant, is born in Königsberg, East Prussia. His unorthodox rationalism has made him one of the forerunners of secular philosophy. He's the author of the Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of Practical Reason, and Critique of Judgment. He reportedly never traveled farther than 30 miles away from Königsberg.

1766–French writer and conductor of a literary salon, Germaine de Staël, is born Anne Louise Germaine Necker in Paris, France. Her liberal views caused Napoleon to send her into exile. She was considered the foremost woman of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras.

1809–The Austrian army is defeated by the First French Empire army, led by Napoleon, who drives them over the Danube in Regensburg.

1823–R.J. Tyers patents roller skates.

1825–Businessman, Anson Stager, is born in Ontario County, New York. He co-founded Western Union and was the first president of Western Electric Manufacturing Company.

1827–English engraver, Thomas Rowlandson, dies after a prolonged illness in London, England, at age 70. He is best known for his depictions of English domestic life that were sometimes erotic, almost to the point of being pornographic.

1833–Richard Trevithick, inventor of the steam engine and the seam locomotive, dies in Dartford, Kent, England, at age 62.

1836–A day after the Battle of San Jacinto, forces under Texas General Sam Houston identify Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna among the captives of the battle, when one of his fellow captives mistakenly gives away his identity.

1838–The British steamship, Sirius, becomes the first to cross the Atlantic Ocean from Britain to America on steam power only. The journey from Cork to New York took 18 days, 10 hours.

1852–William IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, is born at Biebrich Palace in Wiesbaden, Germany.

1864–The U.S. mints a 2¢ coin, with the first appearance of "In God We Trust" on American money.

1868–Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria is born Marie Valerie Mathilde Amalie in Ofen (Buda), Kingdom of Hungary.

1870–Vladimir Lenin, Bolshevik and USSR revolutionist, is born Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov in Simbirsk, Russian Empire. He served as the leader of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917, and then concurrently as Premier of the Soviet Union from 1922, until his death.

1872–Princess Margaret of Prussia is born Margaret Beatrice Feodora at New Palace in Potsdam, Prussia, German Empire. She was a daughter of Frederick III, German Emperor, and Victoria, Princess Royal; the younger sister of Kaiser Wilhelm II; and a granddaughter of Queen Victoria.

1876–Tsjaikovsky completes his ballet, Swan Lake.

1876–The first game in the history of the National League is played at the Jefferson Street Grounds in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This game is often pointed to as the beginning of Major League Baseball.

1883–An outbreak of tornadoes from Louisiana to Kansas claims the lives of 200 people. One of the tornadoes destroys the town of Beauregard, Mississippi.

1889–Oklahoma Territory lands formerly reserved for Native Americans are opened to white homesteaders by President Harrison. At high noon, thousands rush to claim land in the Land Run of 1889. Within hours, the cities of Oklahoma City and Guthrie are formed with populations of at least 10,000.

1897–The Jewish newspaper, Forward, begins publication in New York City.

1898–In the Spanish-American War, the USS Nashville captures a Spanish merchant ship.

1898–U.S. warships begin a blockade of Cuba.

1899–Novelist, Vladimir Nabokov, is born in St. Petersburg, Russia. He learned to speak and read English before he read Russian. Following the Bolshevik revolution, after his family settled in Berlin, his father was killed while shielding another man at a public meeting. Nabokov went from obscurity to great international fame when his book, Lolita, was published when he was 59 years old.

1904–Physicist, (Julius) Robert Oppenheimer, head of the Manhattan (A-bomb) Project, is born in New York, New York. The first atomic bomb was detonated on July 16, 1945, in the Trinity test in New Mexico. Oppenheimer remarked later that it brought to mind words from the Bhagavad Gita: "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds."

1906–The X Olympic Games open in Athens, Greece.

1906–Actor, Eddie Albert, is born Edward Heimberger in Rock Island, Illinois. He is best known for his starring role on the sitcom Green Acres. He appeared in the films Brother Rat, On your Toes, Smash-Up: The Story of a Woman, Time Out of Mind, The Fuller Brush Girl, Roman Holiday, Oklahoma!, I’ll Cry Tomorrow, The Teahouse of the August Moon, The Sun Also Rises, The Joker Is Wild, Beloved Infidel, The Young Doctors, Captain Newman, M.D., The Party’s Over, The Heartbreak Kid, The Longest Yard, Escape to Witch Mountain, Dreamscape, and The Big Picture. He was married to the Mexican actress, Margo.

1908–Politician, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, dies after a series of heart attacks at 10 Downing Street, London, England, at age 71. His last words were, "This is not the end of me." He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

1911–Tsinghua University, one of mainland China's leading universities, is founded.

1912–Pravda, the voice of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, begins publication in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

1914–Mexico ends diplomatic relations with the U.S.

1915–The use of poison gas in World War I escalates when chlorine gas is released as a chemical weapon in the Second Battle of Ypres.

1916–Violinist, Yehudi Menuhin, is born Yehudi Mnuchin in New York, New York. Menuhin began his recording career in 1928, with Victor in America. A year later, he moved to Europe and signed with HMV, and then with EMI, where he made more than 300 recordings. His nearly 70-year record deal is the longest in music history.

1920–Actor and TV host, Hal March, is born Harold Mendelson in San Francisco, California. He is best known as the host of the TV game show The $64,000 Question from 1955 to 1958. March also starred in a 1961 unsold television pilot for a comedy called I Married a Dog, in which his life was constantly upset by his wife's pooch. He appeared in numerous TV shows, including The Steve Allen Show, I Love Lucy, Life with Elizabeth, I Married Joan, The Jack Benny Program, Gidget, and The Monkees. He appeared in the films Ma and Pa Kettle Go to Town, The Eddie Cantor Story, My Sister Eileen, Send Me No Flowers, and A Guide for the Married Man. March was awarded two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, one for his radio work and another for his work in television. He was the step-father of jazz singer, Steve March Torme, whose biological father was jazz singer, Mel Torme.

1921–The Symphony Society of New York becomes the first American orchestra to tour Europe.

1922–Jazz bass player and composer, Charles Mingus, is born in Nogales, Arizona. His compositions retained the hot and soulful feel of hard bop, yet Mingus avoided categorization, forging his own brand of music that fused tradition with unique and unexplored realms of jazz. He played with Lionel Hampton, Charlie Parker, and Duke Ellington, and toured Europe with his own orchestra.

1923–Pinup girl, Betty (Mae) Page, is born in Kingsport, Tennessee. Often referred to as the "Queen of Pinups," her jet black hair, blue eyes, and trademark bangs have influenced artists for generations. She posed for dozens of photographers during thr 1950s.

1923–Television producer, Aaron Spelling, is born in Dallas, Texas. As of 2009, Spelling, through his production company Spelling Television, holds the record as the most prolific television writer and producer in U.S. television history, with 218 producer and executive producer credits. He TV series include Burke’s Law, Honey West, The Mod Squad, The Rookies, Starsky and Hutch, Family, Vega$, Charlie’s Angels, Fantasy Island, Hart to Hart, T.J. Hooker, The Love Boat, Dynasty, Melrose Place, and Beverly Hills, 90210. His daughter is actress, Tori Spelling. He was married to actress, Carolyn Jones, and Candy Spelling.

1925–Actor, George (Edward) Cole, is born in Tooting, Surrey, England. He appeared in the films Henry V, Quartet, The Spider and the Fly, Lady Godiva Rides Again, Scrooge, Our Girl Friday, The Constant Husband, Cleopatra, Fright, The Blue Bird, The End of Innocence, and Mary Reilly.

1926–Bob Flannigan, of The Four Freshmen, is born in Greencastle, Indiana.

1926–Actress, Charlotte Rae, is born Charlotte Rae Lubotsky in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. She is best known for the role of Edna Garrett on the TV shows Diff’rent Strokes and The Facts of Life. She appeared in the films Hello Down There, Jenny, Bananas, The Hot Rock, Rabbit Test, and Hair.

1926–Architect, James Frazer Stirling, is born. He is best known for overturning the rules of the Modern Movement, inventing an eclectic style allowing for designs to be influenced and inspired by the entire history of architecture. Loved by some and hated by others, more conventional colleagues and critics attacked his work at every opportunity, leading Stirling to seek commissions outside the U.K.

1930–The United Kingdom, Japan, and the United States sign the London Naval Treaty, regulating submarine warfare and limiting shipbuilding.

1933–Henry Royce, motorcar pioneer, dies in West Wittering, West Sussex, England, at age 70. He co-founded Rolls-Royce Limited with Charles Rolls.

1936–Singer, Glen (Travis) Campbell, is born in Delight, Arkansas. He is best known for a series of big hits in the 1960s and 1970s, and for hosting the variety show The Glen Campbell Goodtime Hour. He was a well-respected session musician, and became part of a group of studio musicians later known as the Wrecking Crew. He played on dozens of recordings before embarking on his successful solo career. During his 50 years in show business, Campbell released more than 70 albums. His hits include Gentle on My Mind, By the Time I Get to Phoenix, Wichita Lineman, Galveston, Rhinestone Cowboy, and Southern Nights.

1937–Actor, Jack Nicholson, is born John Joseph Nicholson in Neptune, New Jersey. He appeared in the films The Wild Ride, The Little Shop of Horrors, The Raven, The Terror, Ride in the Whirlwind, Hells Angels on Wheels, Psych-Out, Head, Easy Rider, The Rebel Rousers, On a Clear Day You Can See Forever, Five Easy Pieces, Carnal Knowledge, The Last Detail, Chinatown, Tommy, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, The Shining, The Postman Always Rings Twice, Reds, Terms of Endearment, Prizzi’s Honor, Heartburn, The Witches of Eastwick, Broadcast News, A Few Good Nen, Hoffa, As Good as It Gets, and Something’s Gotta Give.

1937–Musician, Jack Nitzsche, is born Bernard Alfred Nitzsche in Chicago, Illinois. He became arranger and conductor for producer, Phil Spector, and orchestrated the ambitious Wall of Sound for the song River Deep, Mountain High by Ike and Tina Turner. Besides Spector, he worked closely with West Coast session musicians such as Leon Russell, Roy Caton, Glen Campbell, Carol Kaye, and Hal Blaine in a group known as The Wrecking Crew. They created backing music for numerous sixties pop recordings by various artists such as The Beach Boys and The Monkees. In the 1970s, he began to concentrate more on film music and became one of the more prolific film orchestrators in Hollywood. He was married to folk singer, Buffy Sainte-Marie.

1939–Actor and playwright, Jason Miller, is born John Anthony Miller in Queens, New York. He received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for his play, That Championship Season, in 1973. He appeared in the films The Exorcist, Monsignor, Toy Soldiers, Light of Day, and Rudy. His son is actor, Jason Patric.

1943–Singer, Mel Carter, is born in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is best known for his million-selling recording Hold Me, Thrill Me, Kiss Me.

1944–The 1st Air Commando Group (using Sikorsky R-4 helicopters) stage the first use of helicopters in combat with combat search and rescue operations in the China Burma India Theater.

1944–Allied forces land in the Hollandia area (currently known as Jayapura) of New Guinea.

1945–General Eisenhower invites eight U.S. Congressmen to visit Nazi death camps.

1945–Prisoners at the Jasenovac concentration camp revolt: 520 of them are killed and around 80 others escape.

1945–After learning that Soviet forces have taken Eberswalde without a fight, Adolf Hitler admits defeat in his underground bunker and states that suicide is his only recourse.

1945–The Stanley Cup: The Toronto Maple Leafs beat the Detroit Red Wings, 4 games to 3.

1946–Movie director, John Waters, is born John Samuel Waters, Jr. in Baltimore, Maryland. His films include Pink Flamingos, Female Trouble, Desperate Living, Polyester, Hairspray, Cry-Baby, and Serial Mom.

1946–Harlan Fiske Stone, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1941-1946), dies of a cerebral hemorrhage in Washington, D.C., at age 73.

1947–The 1st NBA Championship: The Philadelphia Warriors beat the Chicago Stags, 4 games to 2.

1948–In the Arab-Israeli War, Haifa, a major port of Israel, is captured from Arab forces.

1948–French chef, Prosper Montagné, dies. He is best known as the author of the Larousse Gastronomique. He apprenticed at the Grand Hôtel of Paris and the Hotel d'Angleterre of Cauterets, then worked at various restaurants in Paris and San Remo, and the Hôtel de Paris of Monte Carlo. In 1900, he returned to Paris and was chef of the Pavillon d'Armenonville, the Pavillon Ledoyen, and finally the Grand Hotel, where he stayed for 10 years. Later, he had his own restaurant, the Montagné, and was a consultant to La Reine Pédauque.

1950–Rocker, Peter (Kenneth) Frampton, is born in Bromley, London, England. He had one of the biggest selling rock albums in history with Frampton Comes Alive!

1951–In the Korean War, the Chinese People's Volunteer Army begin assaulting positions defended by the Royal Australian Regiment and the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry at the Battle of Kapyong.

1952–The first televised atomic explosion takes place at Nob, Nevada.

1952–Porn actress, Marilyn Chambers, is born Marilyn Ann Briggs in Providence, Rhode Island. She is best known for her 1972 hardcore film debut Behind the Green Door.

1954–During the “Red Scare,” the televised U.S. Senate “McCarthy Hearings” begin.

1954–Actor, Joseph Bottoms, is born in Santa Barbara, California. He appeared in the films The Dove, Crime and Passion, The Black Hole, Blind Date, and Inner Sanctum. He is the brother of actors, Timothy Bottoms and Sam Bottoms.

1955–The U.S. Congress orders that all U.S. coins bear the motto “In God We Trust.”

1959–Go Johnny Go, a rock 'n' roll film with appearances by Chuck Berry and Jackie Wilson, premieres. It will be the last rock film featuring DJ Alan Freed.

1959–Actress, Catherine Mary Stewart, is born in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. She appeared in the films Nighthawks, The Last Starfighter, Night of the Comet, Mischief, and Weekend at Bernie’s.

1961–Comedian, Byron Allen, is born Byron Allen Folks in Detroit, Michigan. In 1993, he founded Entertainment Studios with the launch of his first series, Entertainers with Byron Allen, a weekly, one-hour show profiling current stars of film and television. In 2009, Allen became the first television entrepreneur to own and launch a portfolio of six 24-hour HD TV networks simultaneously: they include Pets.TV, Comedy.TV, Recipe.TV, Cars.TV, ES.TV, and MyDestination.TV.

1962–The Stanley Cup: The Toronto Maple Leafs beat the Chicago Blackhawks, 4 games to 2.

1964–The 1964-1965 New York World's Fair opens for its first season.

1964–The Daily Mirror reports that the president of the National Federation of Hairdressers has offered to give a free haircut to the next band to hit #1. He's particularly outraged by The Rolling Stones. "One of them looks as if he's got a feather duster on his head," he said.

1964–Actor, Chris Makepeace, is born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. He appeared in the films Meatballs, My Bodyguard, Mazes and Monsters, The Falcon and the Snowman, and Aloha Summer.

1966–The USSR conducts an underground nuclear test.

1966–The Troggs release the rock classic Wild Thing. The song will go to #1 in June.

1967–Martial Law goes into effect in Greece.

1968–Record executive, Stephen H. Sholes, dies of a heart attack in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 57. In 1945, he became head of the country division of RCA Victor in Nashville, and was responsible for recruiting talent such as Chet Atkins, Eddy Arnold, Homer and Jethro, Hank Snow, Jim Reeves, and Pee Wee King. In 1955, he signed Elvis Presley to the label and he eventually had 15 chart topping hit singles in the U.K. as a record producer for Presley.

1969–The first human eye transplant is performed.

1969–British yachtsman, Sir Robin Knox-Johnston, wins The Sunday Times Golden Globe Race and completes the first solo non-stop circumnavigation of the world.

1969–In Dolton, England, The Who perform their rock opera, Tommy, live in its entirety for the first time.

1969–In a formal ceremony atop Apple headquarters on Savile Row, John Winston Lennon legally changes his middle name to "Ono," although British law requires that "Winston" must be retained as part of his legal name. Commissioner of Oaths, Bueno de Mesquita, conducts the proceedings.

1969–A&M Records signs The Carpenters.

1969–Joe Frazier knocks out Dave Zyglewick in Round 1 to win the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1970–The first Earth Day is held internationally to promote conservation of the planet’s natural resources.

1972–Increased American bombing in Vietnam prompts antiwar protests in New York City, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. John Lennon is among those addressing the National Peace Rally in New York.

1974–Barbara Walters becomes the co-anchor of the Today Show on NBC-TV.

1976–Film director, Ingmar Bergman, leaves Sweden due to taxation.

1976–Barbara Walters becomes the first female nightly network news anchor.

1977–Optical fiber is first used to carry live telephone traffic.

1977–Simon Peres becomes Premier of Israel.

1977–Charles Sanford, orchestra leader of Your Show of Shows, dies at age 71.

1978–On Saturday Night Live, John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd team up to debut two new characters called "The Blues Brothers," who perform a cover of Sam and Dave's Soul Man.

1978–The Firestone World Bowling Tournament of Champions is won by Earl Anthony.

1978–Actor, Will Geer, dies of respiratory failure in Los Angeles, California, at age 75. His family sang Woody Guthrie's This Land Is Your Land and recited poems by Robert Frost at his deathbed. He is best known for the role of Grandpa Walton on the long-running TV series The Waltons. He appeared in the films Broken Arrow, Winchester ‘73, Salt of the Earth, The Searchers, Advice and Consent, Black Like Me, Seconds, The President’s Analyst, In Cold Blood, Bandolero! The Reivers, The Moonshine War, Of Mice and Men, Brother John, Jeremiah Johnson, and The Night That Panicked America.

1980–Singer, Jane Froman, dies of chronic heart and lung disease in Columbia, Missouri, at age 72. During her 30-year career, Froman performed on stage, radio, and television despite chronic injuries that she sustained from a plane crash in 1943. Her life story was told in the 1952 film With a Song in My Heart, starring Susan Hayward.

1981–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.

1981–The largest U.S. bank robbery takes place in Tucson, Arizona, with more than $3.3 million stolen.

1983–The German magazine, Stern, claims the "Hitler Diaries" had been found in wreckage in East Germany. The diaries are subsequently revealed to be forgeries.

1983–Great Britain conducts a nuclear test.

1983–Pianist, Earl “Fatha” Hines, dies of a heart attack in Oakland, California, at age 79. He was an American jazz pianist and bandleader. He influenced a host of musicians by playing octaves with his right hand, while his left hand played the song's rhythm.

1983–Actor, Walter Slezak, dies of suicide from a self-inflicted gunhost wound in Flower Hill, New York, at age 80. He was reportedly despondent over his advanced physical illness. He appeared in the films Lifeboat, The Princess and the Pirate, Step Lively, The Pirate, Bedtime for Bonzo, Call Me Madam, Come September, The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm, Heidi, Black Beauty, and Treasure Island.

1984–Photographer and environmentalist, Ansel Adams, dies of cardiovascular disease in Monterey, California, at age 82. Adams had been hospitalized for a month following surgery to remove a tumor in his leg. He was survived by his wife, two children, Michael and Anne, and five grandchildren. Adams was cremated, and his ashes placed on Mount Ansel Adams summit, in the Ansel Adams Wilderness area in California.

1986–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1991–Intel releases the 486SX chip.

1991–An earthquake strikes Costa Rica and Panama, killing 95 people.

1991–Shalom America, a Jewish cable network, is launched in Brooklyn and Queens, New York.

1992–In a series of explosions in Guadalajara, Mexico, 206 people are killed, nearly 500 others are injured. and 15,000 are left homeless.

1993–The Holocaust Memorial Museum is dedicated in Washington, D.C.

1993–The Mosaic web browser version 1.0 is released.

1994–Michael Moorer defeats Evander Holyfield in 12 rounds for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1994–Richard M. Nixon, the 37th President of the United States, dies at a New York hospital at age 81, four days after suffering a stroke.

1995–George Foreman defeats Axel Schulz in 12 rounds for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1995–Maggie Kuhn, activist for The Gray Panthers, dies of cardiac arrest in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at age 89. The Gray Panthers became known for advocating nursing home reform and fighting ageism, claiming that "old people and women constitute America's biggest untapped and undervalued human energy source." She also dedicated her life to fighting for human rights, social and economic justice, global peace, integration, and an understanding of mental health issues.

1996–Humor writer, Erma Bombeck, dies from complications of a kidney transplant operation in San Francisco, California, at age 69. From 1965 to 1996, Bombeck wrote over 4,000 newspaper columns chronicling the ordinary life of a midwestern suburban housewife. Her most famous book was The Grass is Always Greener Over the Septic Tank.

1996–Hiteshwar Saikia, Prime Minister of Indian State of Assam (1991-1996), dies of kidney failure.

1997–The Japanese Embassy hostage crisis ends in Lima, Peru.

1997–In the Haouch Khemisti massacre in Algeria, 93 villagers are killed.

1998–Disney's Animal Kingdom opens at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida.

1999–At the Bonhams rock and pop auction in London, England, John Lennon’s Vox stage organ, used during The Beatles’ performance of I’m Down at Shea Stadium in 1965, is sold for £19,500 ($27,300).

2000–The Big Number Change takes place in the United Kingdom. The Big Number Change addresses various issues with the country’s telephone dialing plan during the late-1990s and early-2000s. The first is an update to a small number of geographic dialing codes in response to the rapid late-1990s growth of telecommunications and impending exhaustion of local numbers in several cities. The change greatly expands the pool of available numbers within those places while retaining “local dialing” (the ability to dial local numbers directly, without needing to dial an area code first). The change affects the dialing codes assigned to Cardiff, Coventry, London, Northern Ireland, Portsmouth, and Southampton, culminating in the large switch.

2000–In a pre-dawn raid, federal agents seize six-year-old, Elián González, from his relatives' home in Miami, Florida.

2002–Porn actress, Linda Lovelace, dies of injuries from a car accident in Denver, Colorado, at age 53. She became famous for her performance in the 1972 hardcore porn film Deep Throat.

2003–Songwriter, Felice Bryant, dies in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 74. Along with her husband, Boudleaux Bryant, she most notably wrote songs for the Everly Brothers, including, Bye Bye Love, Wake Up Little Susie, All I Have to Do Is Dream, Problems, Bird Dog, Devoted to You, and Love Hurts.

2004–Two fuel trains collide in Ryongchon, North Korea, killing 150 people.

2005–Japan's Prime Minister, Junichiro Koizumi, apologizes for Japan's war record.

2006–Jalal Talabani is sworn in for a second term as President of Iraq.

2008–The United States Air Force retires the remaining F-117 Nighthawk aircraft that are still in service.

2008–Singer, Paul Davis, dies in Meridian, Mississippi, at age 60. He had a big hit with the song I Go Crazy.

2011–Lambert International Airport in St. Louis, Missouri, experiences extensive damage as it is hit by a group of tornados, blowing out windows in the main terminal and tearing the roof off Concourse C.

2011–Actor, Eddie Cibrian, marries country singer, LeAnn Rimes, at a private home in California.

2013–The Royal Canadian Mounted Police arrest and charge two men with plotting to disrupt a Toronto area train service in a plot claimed to be backed by Al-Qaeda elements.

2013–Singer-songwriter, Richie Havens, dies of a heart attack in Jersey City, New Jersey, at age 72. His appearance at Woodstock in 1969, catapulted him into stardom. At Havens' request, his ashes were scattered from a plane over the site of the Woodstock festival, in a ceremony held on August 18, 2013, the 44th anniversary of the last day of the festival.

2014–More than 60 people are killed and 80 others are seriously injured in a train crash in the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Katanga Province.

2015–McDonald’s discloses that it has closed 350 poorly performing stores in Japan, China, and the United States during the first three months of 2015. The company planes to close 700 more locations before the year is out.

2015–Chile's Calbuco volcano erupts twice in one day, after remaining quiet for 40 years. About 23.5 inches of ash falls in some places and 4,400 residents are evacuated.

2015–Mary Doyle Keefe, the model for Norman Rockwell's iconic 1943 "Rosie the Riveter" painting, dies after a brief illness in Simsbury, Connecticut, at age 92. The painting symbolized the millions of American women who went to work on the home front during World War II.

2016–Mexican President, Enrique Peña Nieto, proposes legalizing marijuana for medical purposes and easing limits for personal use of the drug.

2016–Romania is expelled from the Eurovision Song Contest in Stockholm, Sweden, after its national broadcaster, Romanian Television (TVR), fails to pay outstanding debts dating back to 2007.

2016–Cabinet member and Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, says that President Barack Obama is "inconsistent and hypocritical" in persuading the British people to remain in the European Union.

2016–At least 15 people are killed in a landslide in the Tawang District in India's Arunachal Pradesh state.

2017–People around the world gather during Earth Day to bring awareness to science.

2017–Thousands of German riot police are deployed to control protesters opposing the Alternative for Germany at the party's conference in Cologne.

2017–A house in Memphis, Tennessee, once owned by Elvis Presley in the 1950s as he was skyrocketing to fame, is damaged by fire. Rhodes College looks after the house, now owned by music industry veteran and philanthropist, Mike Curb.

2017–Child actress, Erin Moran, dies in Corydon, Indiana, at age 56. She is best known for the role of Joanie Cunningham on the hit TV series Happy Days. She appeared in the films How Sweet It Is, 80 Steps to Jonah, The Happy Ending, and Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star.


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