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1906–The Great San Francisco earthquake strikes the city at 5:12 a.m. The 8.2 quake and resulting fires devastate the city, killing 4,000 people and leaving over 200,000 people homeless. The fires are caused due to broken gas lines, which continue to burn for several days. Approximately 80% of the city is destroyed. The death toll is the highest in any natural disaster in California history.

310–St. Eusebius begins his reign as Catholic Pope.

359–Roman Emperior Gratian is born Flavius Gratianus Augustus in Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia).

588–Mayan ruler, K'an II, also known as Ruler V, Lord Stormwater Moon, and Antenna Top II, is born.

796–King Ethelred I of Northumbria is murdered in Corbridge, by a group led by his ealdormen, Ealdred and Wada. The patrician Osbald is crowned, but abdicates within 27 days.

850–Spanish monk and martyr, Perfectus, is beheaded in Córdoba Al-Andalus. His martyrdom was one of the first in a period of Muslim persecution of the Christians in Al-Andalus, which began under Abd ar-Rahman II, continued under his successor Muhammad I, and went on intermittently until 960.

879–Japanese Empress Seishi dies at age 69.

1025–Boleslaw Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland.

1480–Murderess, Lucretia Borgia, is born Francesco d'Este, Marchese di Massalombarda Isabella Maria d'Este in Subiaco, Italy. She was the daughter of Pope Alexander VI. It was rumoured that Lucrezia had a hollow ring that she used frequently to poison drinks.

1506–The cornerstone is laid for the current St. Peter's Basilica.

1518–Bona Sforza is crowned as queen consort of Poland.

1521–The trial of Martin Luther begins its second day during the assembly of the Diet of Worms. He refuses to recant his teachings despite the risk of excommunication.

1590–Ottoman sultan, Ahmed I, is born in Manisa, Ottoman Empire. He is most famous for his contribution of the Blue Mosque, one of the most famous mosques in Turkey.

1676–Sudbury, Massachusetts, is attacked by Indians.

1689–Bostonians rise up in rebellion against Sir Edmund Andros.

1690–Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, dies in Wels, Austria, at age 47.

1738–Real Academia de la Historia (Royal Academy of History) is founded in Madrid, Spain.

1775–At about 10 p.m., two lanterns are hung in the steeple of the Old North Church in Boston, Massachusetts, indicating British advancement by sea. Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Samuel Prescott ride to warn the citizens of the approaching British Army. Only Prescott made it all the way to Concord. Revere was nabbed by a British Cavalry Patrol near Lexington, Massachusetts.

1783–Fighting ceases in the American Revolution, eight years to the day it began.

1797–Historian and politician, Adolphe Thiers, is born Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers in Bouc-Bel-Air, France. He was the second elected President of France and the first President of the French Third Republic.

1807–The Harwich ferry disaster occurs near the North Sea port of Harwich on the Essex coast in England: 60 to 90 people drown during the capsizing of a small ferry boat.

1831–The University of Alabama is founded.

1831–Publication begins of the weekly Sydney Herald, Australia’s oldest existing newspaper.

1834–William Lamb becomes Prime Minister of England.

1839–Charles Baudelaire is expelled from college.

1846–The telegraph ticker is patented by R.E. House of New York City.

1847–The American victory at the battle of Cerro Gordo opens the way for the invasion of Mexico.

1857–The Spirits Book by Allan Kardec is published, marking the birth of Spiritualism in France.

1857–Attorney, Clarence S. Darrow, is born in Kinsman Township, Trumbull County, Ohio. He is best known for his participation in the Leopold and Loeb trail and the Scopes “Monkey” trial. Darrow is remembered for his reputation as a fierce litigator who, in many cases, championed the cause of the underdog. Because of this, he is generally regarded as one of the greatest criminal defense lawyers in American history.

1863–Augustus Love is born in Weston-super-Mare, England. Love waves, named after A.E.H. Love, are earthquake waves that move horizontally with respect to the direction of travel, with no vertical motion.

1864–A Prussian-Austrian army defeats Denmark and gains control of Schleswig. Denmark surrenders the province in the following peace settlement.

1875–Syngman Rhee, first President of South Korea, is born in Daegyeong-ri, Masan-myeon, Neungnae-dong, Pyongsan, Hwanghae Province, Joseon (present-day Pyongsan County, North Hwanghae, North Korea). He was regarded as an anti-Communist and a strongman, and he led South Korea through the Korean War.

1877–In France, Charles Cros sets down the principles of recorded sound and its reproduction. Unfortunately for Cros and history, Thomas Edison later claimed to be the inventor of the phonograph.

1880–A tornado hits Marshfield, Missouri, killing 99 people and injuring 100 others.

1881–Billy the Kid escapes from his two jailers at the Lincoln County jail in Mesilla, New Mexico, killing James Bell and Robert Ollinger before stealing a horse and riding out of town.

1882–Conductor, Leopold Stokowski, is born in London, England. He was just an organist in London, but he moved to New York when he was 23, and though he had little conducting experience, he took over the Cincinnati Symphony when he was 27. His flamboyant presence on the stage helped to make his career. He spent nearly 30 years with the Philadelphia Orchestra. He also conducted the orchestra in Walt Disney's Fantasia.

1882–British civil servant and inventor, Sir Henry Cole, dies at age 74. He came up with the idea of sending greeting cards for Christmas.

1889–A 7+ earthquake occurs near the east coast of Honshu, Japan.

1895–New York state passes an act that establishes free public baths. They are to be open 14 hours a day and provide hot and cold water.

1897–The Greco-Turkish War is declared between Greece and the Ottoman Empire.

1898–Artist, Gustave Moureau, dies in Paris, France, at age 72. He was a Symbolist painter whose main emphasis was the illustration of biblical and mythological figures. During his lifetime, Moreau produced more than 8,000 paintings, watercolors, and drawings.

1899–In England, the St. Andrew's Ambulance Association is granted a Royal Charter by Queen Victoria.

1902–Denmark becomes the first country to use fingerprinting to identify criminals.

1902–A 7.5 earthquake shakes Guatemala, killing between 800 to 2,000 people.

1904–Entertainer, Pigmeat Markham, is born Dewey Markham in Durham, North Carolina. Although he is best known as a comedian, Markham was also a singer, dancer, and actor. His nickname came from a stage routine in which he declared himself to be "Sweet Poppa Pigmeat." He became a regular performer on Rowan & Martin’s Laugh-in in the mid-1960s. He appeared in the films Am I Guilty?, That’s My Baby!, House-Rent Party, Fight That Ghost, and Junction 88.

1906–The Great San Francisco earthquake strikes the city at 5:12 a.m. The 8.2 quake and resulting fires devastate the city, killing 4,000 people and leaving over 200,000 people homeless. The fires are caused due to broken gas lines, which continue to burn for several days. Approximately 80% of the city is destroyed. The death toll is the highest in any natural disaster in California history.

1909–Joan of Arc is beatified in Rome, Italy.

1912–The Cunard oceanliner, RMS Carpathia, brings 705 survivors from the RMS Titanic to New York City.

1915–French pilot, Roland Garros, is shot down and glides to a landing on the German side of the lines during World War I.

1916–A 7.4 earthquake hits the Fox Islands, in Alaska.

1918–Publisher, Clifton Hillegass, is born in Rising City, Nebraska. He created CliffsNotes, literary study guides in black and yellow covers that assist college and high school students in their literature course work. There are about 300 titles available in 7,000 retail outlets.

1922–Actress, Barbara Hale, is born in Dekalb, Illinois. She is best known for the role of legal secretary, Della Street, on more than 250 episodes of the TV drama Perry Mason. She would later play the character in 30 made-for-TV “Perry Mason” movies. She appeared in the films West of the Pecos, The Boy with Green Hair, Jolson Sings Again, Lorna Doone, The Far Horizons, Airport, The Giant Spider Invasion, and Big Wednesday. She was married to actor, Bill Williams, and their son is actor, William Katt.

1923–Yankee Stadium opens in the Bronx, New York, with 74,000 people on hand to witness the event. It is called “The House That Ruth Built,” referring to baseball great, Babe Ruth.

1924–The first crossword puzzle book is published by Simon & Schuster.

1924–Clarence “Gatemouth” Brown is born in Vinton, Louisiana. The musician got his name from a high school teacher who said he had a “voice like a gate.” He's since become a blues legend.

1925–The World's Fair opens in Chicago, Illinois.

1925–African-American poet, Bob Kaufman, is born Robert Garnell Kaufman in New Orleans, Louisiana. He will become an important figure of the Beat movement. A Roman Catholic mother, a German-Jewish father, and a grandmother who believed in voodoo, will expose Kaufman to a wide variety of religious influences, but he will eventually adopt the Buddhist religion. He left home at 13, to join the merchant marines, sailed around the globe nine times, and survived four shipwrecks. He settled in San Francisco, California, when he was 32, and became involved with the local Beat poets, co-founding the poetry magazine Beatitude. In 1963, he was so moved by the assassination of John F. Kennedy, he took a vow of silence. He remained silent, neither speaking nor writing, until the end of the Vietnam War in 1975.

1930–The BBC reports there is no news, then plays out with piano music.

1934–The first “Washateria” or laundromat, opens in Ft. Worth, Texas.

1934–Actor, James Drury, is born James Child Drury, Jr. in New York, New York. He is best known for his starring role on the TV Western The Virginian. He appeared in the films Blackboard Jungle, Love Me or Leave Me, The Tender Trap, Forbidden Planet, Love Me Tender, Bernardine, Toby Tyler, Pollyanna, and Ride the High Country.

1935–Record producer, Paul A. Rothchild, is born in Brooklyn, New York. He was a prominent producer of the late 1960s and 1970s, known for his work with The Doors, Janis Joplin, and The Paul Butterfield Blues Band.

1936–The Pan-Am Clipper begins regular passenger flights from San Francisco, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii.

1937–Actor, Robert (Dean) Hooks, is born in Washington, D.C. He appeared in the films Hurry Sundown, Last of the Mobile Hotshots, Trouble Man, Airport ‘77, Star Trek III: The Search for Spock, Passenger 57, Posse, Fled, and Seventeen Again.

1939–Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, is born.

1941–Mike Vickers, flautist and sax player with Manfred Mann, is born in Southampton, England. He also played the Moog on The Beatles' Abbey Road.

1942–Pierre Laval becomes Prime Minister of Vichy France.

1942–In World War II, the Japanese cities of Tokyo, Yokohama, Kobe, and Nagoya are bombed.

1942–The Stanley Cup: The Toronto Maple Leafs beat the Detroit Red Wings, 4 games to 3.

1942–Sculptor and art collector, Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, dies in New York, New York, at age 67. She founded the Whitney Museum of American Art.

1943–In Operation Vengeance, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto is killed when his aircraft is shot down by U.S. fighters over Bougainville Island.

1943–Drummer, Clyde Stubblefield, is born in Chattanooga, Tennessee. He is best known for his work with soul singer, James Brown.

1944–California experiences its worst hailstorm on record. Damage mounts to $2 million as two consecutive storms devastate the Sacramento Valley, destroying the fruit crop.

1944–The 48th Boston Marathon is won by Gerard Cote of Canada, with a time of 2:31:50.

1944–Radio disc jockey, Charlie Tuna, is born Arthur W. Ferguson in Kearney, Nebraska.

1945–After broadcasting pro-nazi propaganda for months, Clandestine Radio 1212 uses its influence to trap 350,000 German Army troops.

1945–In World War II, over 1,000 bombers attack the small island of Heligoland, Germany.

1945–Prince William of Albania dies in exile in Predeal, Romania, at age 69.

1946–The League of Nations is dissolved. It had been replaced by the United Nations three months earlier.

1946–The International Court of Justice holds its inaugural meeting in The Hague, Netherlands.

1946–Lennie Baker, of Sha Na Na, is born in Whitman, Massachusetts.

1946–Child actress, Hayley Mills, is born Hayley Catherine Rose Vivien Mills in Marylebone, London, England. She appeared in the films Pollyana, The Parent Trap, and The Moon Spinners for Walt Disney in the mid-1960s. She also appeared in the films Tiger Bay, Whistle Down the Wind, The Chalk Garden, The Truth About Spring, That Darn Cat!, The Family Way, Twisted Nerve, Take a Girl Like You, Endless Night, and Deadly Strangers. Her father is actor, John Mills. Her sister is actress, Juliet Mills.

1946–Skip Spence, of Jefferson Airplane, is born Alexander Lee Spence in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. He was co-founder of Moby Grape, and played guitar with them until 1969.

1947–Actress, Dorothy Lyman, is born in Minneapolis Minnesota. She is best known for the roles of Gwen Frame in Another World, Opal Sue Gardner in All My Children, and Naomi Harper in the sitcom Mama's Family.

1947–Actress, Lori Martin, is born Dawn Catherine Menzer in Glendale, California. She is best known for the starring role in the TV version of National Velvet. She appeared in the films Machine-Gun Kelly, The FBI Story, Cash McCall, Cape Fear, and The Chase.

1947–Actress, Cindy Pickett, is born in Sand Springs, Oklahoma. She is best known for the role of Dr. Carol Novino on the TV drama St. Elsewhere. She appeared in the films Circle of Power, Call to Glory, Ferris Bueller's Day Off, DeepStar Six, Crooked Hearts, Sleepwalkers, and The Village Barbershop. She was married to actor, Lyman Ward.

1947–Actor, James (Howard) Woods, is born in Vernal, Utah. He appeared in the films Hickey & Boggs. The Way We Were, Night Moves, The Choirboys, The Onion Field, Eyewitness, Videodrome, Against All Odds, Once Upon a Time in America, Cat’s Eye, Salvador, Best Seller, True Believer, Immediate Family, The Hard Way, Casino, Nixon, Ghosts of Mississippi, and John Q.

1949–The Republic of Ireland withdraws from the British Commonwealth.

1949–The keel for the aircraft carrier USS United States is laid down at Newport News Drydock and Shipbuilding. However, construction is canceled five days later, resulting in the Revolt of the Admirals.

1950–Choreographer, Kenny Ortega, is born Kenneth John Ortega in Palo Alto, California. He worked on the films Xanadu, Dirty Dancing, Salsa, Shag, Newsies, and To Wong Foo, Thanks for Everything, Julie Newmar.

1953–Actor, Rick Moranis, is born Frederick Allan Moranis in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. He appeared in the films Strange Brew, Ghostbusters, Club Paradise, Little Shop of Horrors, Spaceballs, Honey I Shrunk the Kids, Parenthood, L.A. Story, The Flintstones, and Little Giants.

1954–Gamal Abdal Nasser seizes power in Egypt.

1955–The first lighted “Walk/Don’t Walk” street signals are installed.

1955–Twenty-nine nations meet at Bandung, Indonesia, for the first Asian-African Conference.

1955–Albert Einstein, German-born scientist and mathematician, dies in his sleep from a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in Princeton, New Jersey, at age 76. During his autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey, removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent. Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered at an undisclosed location. He formulated the Theory of Relativity and won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921.

1955–Eugen Herrigel dies in Partenkirchen, Bavaria. He was a German philosopher who taught philosophy at Tohoku Imperial University in Sendai, Japan, from 1924 to 1929, and introduced Zen to large parts of Europe through his writings. His most famous work is Zen in the Art of Archery.

1956–Grace Kelly sails on the U.S.S. Constitution to Europe for her wedding to Monaco's Prince Rainier.

1956–Actor, Eric (Anthony) Roberts, is born in Biloxi, Mississippi. He appeared in the films King of the Gypsies, Raggedy Man, Star 80, The Pope of Greenwich Village, Coca-Cola Kid, Runaway Train, Nobody’s Fool, Rude Awakening, Wildflower, A Guide to Recognizing Your Saints, and The Dark Knight. He is the brother of actress, Julia Roberts.

1957–A dust devil near Dracut, Massachusetts, lifts a small child three feet into the air, rolling two others on the ground. None of them are injured. The dust devil is accompanied by a loud whistling sound.

1958–A U.S. Federal Court decides that since poet, Ezra Pound, is incurably, permanently insane, he can no longer be held under indictment for treason and can be set free.

1959–The Stanley Cup: The Montreal Canadiens beat the Toronto Maple Leafs, 4 games to 1.

1960–French President Charles de Gaulle arrives in Ottawa, Canada, for a four-day visit.

1961–The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, a cornerstone of modern international relations, is adopted.

1961–The Conference of Nationalist Organizations of the Portuguese Colonies (CONCP) is founded in Casablanca, Morocco. as a united front of African movements opposing Portuguese colonial rule.

1961–Actress, Jane Leeves, is born in Ilford, Essex, England. She is best known for the role of Daphne Moon on the sitcom Frasier. She appeared in the films Monty Python's The Meaning of Life, The Hunger, To Live and Die in L.A., and Music of the Heart.

1962–The 16th NBA Championship: The Boston Celtics beat the Los Angeles Lakers, 4 games to 3.

1962–Comedian, Jeff Dunham, is born in Dallas, Texas. Dunham has been credited with reviving ventriloquism, and doing more to promote the art form than anyone since Edgar Bergen.

1963–Dr. James Campbell performs the first human nerve transplant.

1963–The Beatles perform at London's Royal Albert Hall for the first time. The occasion is a live concert, performed in front of an audience, for a live BBC radio broadcast. The show, called "Swinging Sound '63," is divided into two halves, with The Beatles appearing both times, but only the second half is broadcast on the radio. The other performers on the show are Del Shannon, The Springfields, Lance Percival, Rolf Harris, The Vernons Girls, Kenny Lynch, Shane Fenton and the Fentones, and George Melly. After the show, Paul McCartney meets, for the first time, actress and “teen personality” Jane Asher, who later inspires the song I Saw Her Standing There.

1963–The Stanley Cup: The Toronto Maple Leafs beat the Detroit Red Wings, 4 games to 1.

1963–Actor, Eric (James) McCormack, is born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. He is best known for the role of gay lawyer Will Truman on the TV series Will & Grace.

1963–Comedian and TV host, Conan (Christopher) O'Brien, is born in Brookline, Massachusetts. He is best known for hosting several late-night talk shows, including Late Night with Conan O’Brien and The Tonight Show. He appeared in the films Vanilla Sky, Bewitched, and The Secret Life of Walter Mitty.

1964–The Beach Boys are on American Bandstand, singing I Get Around and Fun Fun Fun. The Beatles are guests via telephone on the same show. (After The Beach Boys sing, the rest of the show is all Beatles.)

1964–Peter and Gordon’s World Without Love hits #1 in England. It was written by Paul McCartney and John Lennon.

1964–Playwright, Ben Hecht, dies in New York, New York, at age 70. Called the “Shakespeare of Hollywood,” he received screen credits, alone or in collaboration, for the stories or screenplays of 70 films, and as a prolific storyteller, authored 35 books. He was blacklisted in the U.K. during World War II because of his support for the Jews. Among the better-known films he helped write without being credited are Gone with the Wind, The Shop Around the Corner, Foreign Correspondent, His Girl Friday, The Sun Also Rises, Mutiny on the Bounty, The Greatest Show on Earth, and Casino Royale.

1965–Singer, Cilla Black, makes her debut on the TV show Sunday Night at the London Palladium.

1966–The Cavern Club is sold for £5,500 to restaurant owner, Joseph Davey, of Wallasey, England.

1966–The 38th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: The Sound of Music; Best Actor: Lee Marvin for Cat Ballou; Best Actress: Julie Christie for Darling; Best Director: Robert Wise for The Sound of Music; Best Foreign Film: The Shop on Main Street (Czechoslovakia). The ceremonies are held at the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Santa Monica, California. The host is Bob Hope. Lynda Bird Johnson, daughter of President Johnson, attends the ceremonies, escorted by actor, George Hamilton.

1968–London Bridge (not the real one) is sold to a U.S. oil company and is re-erected in Arizona.

1968–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1971–Actor, David Tennant, is born David John McDonald in Bathgate, West Lothian, Scotland. He appeared in the films Jude, Bright Young Things, and Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire.

1975–John Lennon is at the Grand Ballroom of the Hilton Hotel in New York City, recording an appearance for the ATV/ITC TV special Salute to Sir Lew Grade: The Master Showman. Lennon’s appearance is part of a related settlement arising from a publishing dispute over material co-written by he and Yoko Ono. For tonight’s show, John, sporting a pair of dark round-lensed glasses, appears with his long hair pulled back from his face, and he is dressed in a bright red jumpsuit covered with zippers. He plays acoustic guitar on Slippin’ and Slidin’, Stand By Me, and Imagine. He is backed by the eight-piece band, Etcetera, who are wearing face masks attached to the back of their heads. When asked about the masks, John says: “It was a sardonic reference to my feelings on Lew Grade’s personality!” John returns at the end of the show to take a bow along with the rest of the cast, this time dressed in a more formal blue shirt and white trousers, along with his trademark cap and scarf. This turned out to be John Lennon’s last live public performance.

1976–Actress, Melissa Joan Hart, is born in Smithtown, New York. She is best known for her roles in the sitcoms Clarissa Explains It All, Sabrina the Teenage Witch, and Melissa & Joey.

1977–The 81st Boston Marathon is won by Jerome Drayton of Canada, with a time of 2:14:46.

1977–The 6th Boston Women's Marathon is won by Miki Gorman of California, with a time of 2:48:33.

1980–The Republic of Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) gains independence from Great Britain. Canaan Banana is the country's first President.

1983–A suicide bomber destroys the U.S. Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, killing 63 people.

1983–The 87th Boston Marathon is won by Greg Meyer of Massachusetts, with a time of 2:09:00.

1983–The 12th Boston Women's Marathon is won by Joan Benoit Samuelson, with a time of 2:22:43.

1984–Doctors perform scalp surgery on pop star, Michael Jackson, to repair damage done after the singer’s hair caught fire during the filming of a Pepsi commercial on January 27th. Jackson remained hospitalized and recuperated for months before he could return to work.

1985–A 5.8 earthquake in Yunnan Province, China, results in 23 deaths and 300 injuries.

1985–Entertainer, Liberace, breaks his own record at Radio City Music Hall, bringing in $2 million for his latest engagement.

1988–The United States launches Operation Praying Mantis against Iranian naval forces in the largest naval battle since World War II.

1988–The accused murderer of reggae legend, Peter Tosh, Dennis "Leppo" Lobban, goes on trial in Jamaica.

1988–The 92nd Boston Marathon is won by Ibrahim Hussein of Kenya, with a time of 2:08:43.

1988–The 17th Boston Women's Marathon is won by Rosa Mota of Portugal, with a time of 2:24:30.

1990–A 7.4 earthquake hits the Minahassa Peninsula. At least three people are killed and 25 people are injured.

1991–The U.S. Census Bureau announces that it failed to count up to 63 million people in the 1990 census.

1992–General Abdul Rashid Dostum revolts against President Mohammad Najibullah of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and allies with Ahmad Shah Massoud to capture Kabul.

1993–A 6.3 earthquake is centered northeast of Lima, Peru.

1994–Richard Nixon, former President of the United States, suffers a stroke.

1994–Comedienne, Roseanne Barr, files for divorce from actor, Tom Arnold.

1994–The 98th Boston Marathon is won by Cosmas Ndeti of Kenya, with a time of 2:07:15.

1994–The 23rd Boston Women's Marathon is won by Uta Pippig of Germany, with a time of 2:21:45.

1995–Quarterback, Joe Montana, announces his retirement from football.

1995–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: Tony Horwitz, of The Wall Street Journal, for stories about working conditions in low-wage America; Fiction: The Stone Diaries by Carol Shields (Viking); Drama: The Young Man From Atlanta by Horton Foote (Dutton); Non-Fiction: The Beak Of The Finch–A Story Of Evolution In Our Time by Jonathan Weiner (Alfred A. Knopf); History: No Ordinary Time–Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt, The Home Front in World War II by Doris Kearns Goodwin (Simon & Schuster); Biography or Autobiography: Harriet Beecher Stowe–A Life by Joan D. Hedrick (Oxford University Press); Poetry: The Simple Truth by Philip Levine (Alfred A. Knopf); Photography: Staff of the Associated Press for its portfolio of photographs chronicling the horror and devastation in Rwanda; Music: Stringmusic by Morton Gould (G. Schirmer).

1996–In Lebanon, at least 106 civilians are killed when the Israel Defense Forces shell the United Nations compound at Quana, where more than 800 civilians had taken refuge.

1996–Mike Leander, a frequent collaborator with Marianne Faithfull on her 1960s recordings, dies of cancer in London, England, at age 54.

1997–The Red River flood begins and soon overwhelms the city of Grand Forks, North Dakota. Fire breaks out and spreads in downtown Grand Forks, but high water levels hamper efforts to reach the fire, leading to the destruction of 11 buildings.

2003–Computer scientist, Edgar F. Codd, dies of heart failure at his home in Williams Island, Aventura, Florida, at age 79. While working for IBM, he invented the relational model for database management, the theoretical basis for relational databases.

2007–The U.S. Supreme Court upholds the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act in a 5-4 decision.

2007–A series of bombings occur in Baghdad, killing 198 people and injuring 251 others.

2011–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: Jesse Eisinger and Jake Bernstein of ProPublica for their exposure of questionable practices on Wall Street that contributed to the nation's economic meltdown; Fiction: A Visit From the Goon Squad by Jennifer Egan; Drama: Clybourne Park by Bruce Norris; Non-Fiction: The Emperor of All Maladies–A Biography of Cancer by Siddhartha Mukherjee; History: The Fiery Trial–Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery by Eric Foner,; Biography or Autobiography: Washington–A Life by Ron Chernow; Poetry: The Best of It–New and Selected Poems by Kay Ryan; Photography: Barbara Davidson, of The Los Angeles Times, for her intimate story of innocent victims trapped in the city's crossfire of deadly gang violence; Music: Zhou Long for Madame White Snake.

2012–Radio and television personality, Dick Clark, dies of a heart attack in Santa Monica, California, at age 82. American Bandstand debuted nationally on August 5, 1957, with Clark as its host. The show took off, due to his natural rapport with the live teenage audience and dancing participants, as well as the non-threatening image he projected to television audiences. As a result, many parents were introduced to rock and roll music. Due to his perennial youthful appearance, Clark was often referred to as "America's oldest teenager." He appeared in the films Because They’re Young, The Young Doctors, and Killers Three.

2013–A cafe bombing in Baghdad, Iraq, kills 27 people and injures 65 others.

2013–Two Earth-like planets are discovered orbiting the star Kepler-62.

2013–Adlabs Imagica opens on Mumbai-Pune expressway, near the city of Khopoli, India. The theme park offers entertainment, dining, and shopping. It features 26 attractions and five themed restaurants, including a ride based on the Bollywood film, Mr. India. Rides include: Humpty’s Fall, Wagon O-O Wheel, Zooballoo, Wrath of the Gods, Deep Space,Loch Ness Explorers, and Scream Machine. India. Adlabs Imagica is India's first and only international theme park.

2013–The 28th Annual Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony is held. This year’s inductees are: (Performers) Rush, Heart, Randy Newman, Public Enemy, Donna Summer, and Albert King; (Non-Performer) Lou Adler and Quincy Jones; (Sidemen) No awards given; and (Early Influence) No awards given. The ceremony takes place at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum in Cleveland, Ohio.

2014–An avalanche on Mount Everest kills 16 people.

2015–Filmmaker, George Lucas, is planning to build affordable housing for low-income families in an area which is largely affluent, with a number of millionaires living within the vicinity. The plan is to build 224 homes on the 1,039 acres of land available on his Grady Ranch estate in Marin County, California.

2015–The 30th Annual Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony is held. This year’s inductees are: (Performers) Ringo Starr, The “5” Royales, The Paul Butterfield Blues Band, Green Day, Joan Jett & the Blackhearts, Lou Reed, Stevie Ray Vaughan & Double Trouble, and Bill Withers; (Non-Performer) No awards given; (Sidemen) No awards given; and (Early Influence) No awards given. The ceremony takes place at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum in Cleveland, Ohio.

2016–An argument between two construction workers in Shijiazhuang, China, escalates into a demolition derby-style clash of heavy machinery that leaves at least two bulldozers flipped over in the street.

2016–The co-founders of Ben & Jerry's ice cream are arrested at the U.S. Capitol, in Washington, D.C., along with approximately 300 others who are protesting with the group Democracy Awakening. The protests are in regard to the role of money in politics.

2016–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: The Los Angeles Times staff for exceptional reporting, including both local and global perspectives, on the shooting in San Bernardino and the terror investigation that followed; Fiction: The Sympathizer by Viet Thanh Nguyen; Drama: Hamilton by Lin-Manuel Miranda; Non-Fiction: Black Flags–The Rise of ISIS by Joby Warrick; History: Custer's Trials–A Life on the Frontier of a New America by T.J. Stiles; Biography or Autobiography: Barbarian Days–A Surfing Life by William Finnegan; Poetry: Ozone Journal by Peter Balakian; Photography: Jessica Rinaldi of The Boston Globe for the raw and revealing photographic story of a boy who strives to find his footing after abuse by those he trusted; Music: In for a Penny, In for a Pound by Henry Threadgill.

2016–The 120th Boston Marathon is won by Lemi Berhanu Hayle of Ethiopa, with a time of 2:12:45.

2016–The 55th Boston Women's Marathon is won by Atsede Baysa of Kenya, with a time of 2:29:19.

2017–The Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities announces the discovery of eight mummies, 10 colorful sarcophagi, and numerous figurines in a 3,500-year-old tomb near the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt.

2017–With polls showing a close race with Emmanuel Macron and Jean-Luc Mélenchon, Marine Le Pen of the National Front pledges to suspend all immigration, "legal and illegal," to France.

2017–American consumer goods company, Post Holdings, agrees to acquire British cereal maker, Weetabix Limited, from China's Bright Food for $1.8 billion.

2017–Steve Stephens, the "Facebook killer," accused of killing 74-year-old Robert Godwin and uploading the murder on the Internet, kills himself after a brief pursuit with the Pennsylvania state police. In light of the recent Facebook live murder, which stayed up on the social network for two hours before it was removed, CEO Mark Zuckerberg promises to review its protocol for monitoring and removing violent videos.

2017–Three people die in a shooting spree in downtown Fresno, California. The gunman, who was already wanted for another murder four days earlier and had expressed hatred of whites and the government, is arrested.

2017–Film producer, J.C. Spink, dies in West Hollywood, California, at age 45. His films include Cats & Dogs, The Butterly Effect, Monster-in-Law, A History of Violence, and Just Friends.

2018–A 35-year ban on movie theaters ends in Saudi Arabia with Marvel Studios' Black Panther being the first film to be shown.

2018–Iran's central bank officially switches from using the U.S. dollar to the Euro in its international transactions.

2018–Puerto Rico experiences an island-wide electrical blackout after an excavator accidentally downs a transmission line.


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