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1928–Singer-songwriter, Serge Gainsbourg, is born Lucien Ginsburg in Paris, France. He was a pianist, film composer, poet, painter, screenwriter, writer, actor, and director. He is regarded as one of the most important figures in French popular music. Through the course of his career, Gainsbourg wrote over 500 songs, which have been covered more than 1,000 times by a wide range of artists.



670–The second Shia Imam, Hassan ibn Ali, dies after being poisoned by his wife in Medina, Umayyad Caliphate, at age 46.

742–Charlemagne, King of the Franks, is born in Frankish Kingdom. He was also known as Charles the Great. In 800, he became the first Holy Roman Emperor: the first recognized emperor in Western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier.

1118–Baldwin I of Jerusalem dies in Al-Arish, Egypt, at age 60. He was one of the leaders of the First Crusade, who became the first Count of Edessa, and then the second ruler and first titled King of Jerusalem.

1305–Joan I of Navarre dies during childbirth at the Château de Vincennes in France, at age 32. At the age of 11, Joan married the future Philip IV of France on August 16, 1284, becoming queen consort of France a year later. Their three surviving sons would all rule as kings of France, in turn, and their only surviving daughter, Isabella, became queen consort of England.

1335–Henry of Bohemia dies at Tirol Castle in South Tyrol, Italy, at age 70.

1272–Richard, Holy Roman Emperor, 1st Earl of Cornwall, dies at age 63.

1348–Byzantine Emperor, Andronikos IV Palaiologos, is born in Constantinople, Byzantine Empire.

1416–King Ferdinand I of Aragon dies in Igualada, Barcelona, Spain, at age 35.

1502–Arthur, Prince of Wales, dies of an unknown ailment at Ludlow Castle in Ludlow, Shropshire, Kingdom of England, at age 15. Arthur was viewed by contemporaries as the great hope of the newly established House of Tudor.

1513–Spanish explorer, Juan Ponce de Leon, lands in Florida, claiming it for his homeland.

1545–Elisabeth of Valois is born at the Palace of Fontainebleau in Paris, France.

1550–Jews are expelled from Genoa, Italy.

1614–Chinese Prince, Dodo, is born Aisin-Gioro Dodo in China. He was a Manchu Prince and military general of the early Qing dynasty. His title was "Prince Yu of the First Rank."

1653–Prince George of Denmark is born at Copenhagen Castle in Denmark. He was the husband of Queen Anne, who reigned over Great Britain from 1702.

1657–Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, dies in Vienna, Austria, at age 48. He was also King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia, and Archduke of Austria.

1725–Giacomo (Girolamo) Casanova is born in Venice, Republic of Venice. Author of History of My Life and infamous as a philanderer, his surname would become synonymous with “womanizer” or “rogue” in the English language. Uncut, his memoirs ran to 12 volumes, and the abridged American translation runs to nearly 1,200 pages. Although his chronology is at times confusing and inaccurate, and many of his tales exaggerated, much of his narrative and many details are corroborated by contemporary writings. The manuscript of Casanova's memoirs was held by his relatives until it was sold to F.A. Brockhaus publishers, and first published in heavily abridged versions in German around 1822, then in French. During World War II, the manuscript survived the allied bombing of Leipzig. The memoirs were heavily pirated through the ages and have been translated into 20 languages. But the entire text was not published in its original language of French until 1960. In 2010, the manuscript was acquired by the National Library of France, and it has been digitized.

1755–Commodore William James captures the Maratha fortress of Suvarnadurg on west coast of India.

1792–The U.S. Congress passes The Coinage Act and establishes the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1800–Ludwig van Beethoven leads the premiere of his First Symphony in Vienna, Austria.

1801–In the French Revolutionary Wars, the British capture the Danish fleet.

1805–Writer, Hans Christian Andersen, is born in Odense, Funen, Kingdom of Denmark. He would write 150 fairy tales that are still popular today. Andersen's fairy tales, which have been translated into more than 125 languages, have become culturally embedded in the West's collective consciousness, readily accessible to children, but presenting lessons of virtue and resilience in the face of adversity for mature readers as well. Some of his most famous fairy tales include The Emperor's New Clothes, The Little Mermaid, The Nightingale, The Snow Queen, and The Ugly Duckling.

1814–Inventor, Erastus Brigham Bigelow, is born in West Boylston, Massachusetts. In 1838, he invented a power loom for weaving knotted counterpanes, and later a power loom to weave coach lace. In 1839, he contracted to produce a power-loom capable of weaving two-ply ingrain carpets, improving on the handloom, which only produced eight yards a day. With his first loom, he succeeded in obtaining 10 or 12 yards daily, which he increased by improvements until a product of 25 yards was possible. Then he invented a power-loom for weaving "Brussels" (i.e. pictorial tapestry) and velvet tapestry carpets, his most important invention, which attracted much attention at the 1851 World's Fair in London, England.

1827–Joseph Dixon begins manufacturing lead pencils.

1834–French sculptor, Frédéric-Auguste Bertholdi, is born. He is best known for creating the Statue of Liberty.

1838–Politician, Léon Gambetta, is born in Cahors, France. He was the 45th Prime Minister of France.

1840–Novelist, Émile Zola, is born Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola in Paris, France. He was the most well-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism. Zola was nominated for the first and second Nobel Prize in Literature in 1901 and 1902.

1845–H.L. Fizeau and J. Leon Foucault take the first photograph of the Sun.

1851–Rama IV is crowned King of Thailand.

1863–Shortages of food cause hundreds of angry women to march on the Governor’s Office in Richmond, Virginia, demanding bread. They eventually break into the commissary and other shops, carrying out anything they can find. Even the hospital reports the loss of over 300 pounds of beef. Arrests are made, but the newspapers downplay the incident.

1865–Confederate President, Jefferson Davis, flees the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia.

1870–Victoria Woodhull is the first woman to be nominated for U.S. President.

1872–Samuel F.B. Morse, American painter and inventor of the telegraph, dies of pneumonia in New York, New York, at age 80. He was buried in Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York. He invented the Morse Code.

1875–Walter (Percy) Chrysler, founder of the Chrysler Corporation, is born in Wamego, Kansas.

1876–The Philadelphia A's and Boston Red Caps play the first National League Baseball game in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1884–The prison for debtors in London, England, is closed.

1885–Cree warriors attack the village of Frog Lake, North-West Territories, Canada, killing nine people.

1891–Painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet, Max Ernst, is born in Germany. Ernst was a prolific artist, and a champion of both the Dada movement and Surrealism. He collaborated with André Breton on the magazine Litterature and showed his works at Salon des Indépendants in 1923, the year Surrealist works were first exhibited.

1900–The U.S. Congress passes the Foraker Act, giving Puerto Rico limited self-rule.

1902–Dmitry Sipyagin, Minister of Interior of the Russian Empire, is assassinated by a terrorist in the Marie Palace, in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

1902–The first motion picture theatre opens in Los Angeles, California. The Electric Theatre charged a dime to view an hour’s entertainment, including the films The Capture of the Biddle Brothers and New York in a Blizzard.

1902–Graphic designer and typographer, Jan Tschichold, is born in Leipzig, Germany. He was the son of a provincial signwriter, and was trained in calligraphy. He became a leading advocate of Modernist design: first with an influential magazine supplement in 1925, a personal exhibition in 1927, and his most noted work Die neue Typographie. He favoured non-centered design (e.g., on title pages), and codified many other Modernist design rules and he advocated the use of standardised paper sizes for all printed matter. Between 1926 and 1929, he designed a “universal alphabet” to clean up the few multigraphs and non-phonetic spellings in the German language. The typefaces he designed are Transit, Saskia, Zeus, and Sabon.

1908–The Mills Committee declares baseball was invented by Abner Doubleday.

1908–Actor, Buddy Ebsen, is born Christian Ludolf Ebsen, Jr. in Belleville, Illinois. He is best known for the role of Jed Clampett on the TV comedy series The Beverly Hillbillies. He appeared in the films Night People, Red Garters, Between Heaven and Hell, Breakfast at Tiffiany’s, The Interns, Mail Order Bride, and The One and Only Genuine Original Family Band.

1911–The Australian Bureau of Statistics conducts the country's first national census.

1912–The RMS Titanic undergoes sea trials under its own power.

1912–Herbert Mills, of The Mills Brothers, is born in Piqua, Ohio. The group helped pioneer the doo-wop sound by mimicking instruments with their voices. One of the their biggest hits was Glow Worm.

1914–Actor, Alec Guinness, is born Alec Guinness de Cuffe in Paddington, London, England. He is known for his portrayal of Obi-Wan Kenobi in George Lucas's original Star Wars trilogy. Guinness was one of three major British actors, along with Laurence Olivier and John Gielgud, who successfully made the transition from Shakespearean theatre in their home country to Hollywood blockbusters immediately after the World War II. He appeared in the films Great Expectations, Oliver Twist, Kind Hearts and Coronets, Last Holiday, The Lavender Hill Mob, The Man in the White Suit, The Prisoner, The Ladykillers, The Bridge on the River Kwai, Our Man in Havana, Lawrence of Arabia, Doctor Zhivago, Hotel Paradiso, The Quiller Miemorandum, Scrooge, Lovesick, A Passage to India, and Little Dorrit.

1917–President Woodrow Wilson asks the U.S. Congress to declare war against Germany.

1917–Jeannette Rankin becomes the first woman member of U.S. House of Representatives.

1917–Character actor, Dabbs Greer, is born Robert William Greer in Fairview, Missouri. He got his stage name "Dabbs" from his grandmother: it was her maiden name. He was seen in dozens of TV shows, including The Lone Ranger, Topper, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Adventures of Superman, Wanted: Dead of Alive, Zane Grey Theater, The Rifleman, The Twilight Zone, Rawhide, The Andy Griffith Show, and Perry Mason. He appeared in the films The Damned Don’t Cry, The Bad and the Beautiful, House of Wax, Living It Up, Invasion of the Body Snatchers, Hot Rod Girl, The Spirit of St. Louis, My Man Godfrey, Baby Face Nelson, It! The Terror from Beyond Space, I Want to Live!, Palm Springs Weekend, Roustabout, Shenandoah, Pacific Heights, and The Green Mile.

1920–Actor, Jack Webb, is born John Randolph Webb in Santa Monica, California. He is best known for role of Sergeant Joe Friday in the radio and TV series Dragnet. He appeared in the films He Walked by Night, Sunset Boulevard, Dark City, Halls of Montezuma, Pete Kelly’s Blues, and -30-. He was married to actress-singer, Julie London.

1921–Professor, Albert Einstein, lectures in New York City on his new Theory of Relativity.

1921–The Autonomous Government of Khorasan, a military government encompassing the modern state of Iran, is established.

1923–Actress, Gloria Henry, is born Gloria McEniry in New Orleans, Louisiana. She is best known for her role on the TV sitcom Dennis the Menace. She was also seen in the TV shows My Little Margie, Mr. & Mrs. North, Love American Style, Dallas, and Doogie Howser, M.D. She appeared in the films Bulldog Drummond Strikes Back, Riders in the Sky, and Rancho Notorious.

1926–Riots break out between Moslems and Hindus in Calcutta, India.

1926–Actress, Elena (Angela) Verdugo, is born in Paso Robles, California. She is best known for the role of nurse Consuelo Lopez on the TV drama series Marcus Welby, M.D. She was also seen in the TV shows The Bob Cummings Show, Rawhide, Route 66, 77 Sunset Strip, and Love, American Style. She appeared in the films Blood and Sand, Belle Starr, House of Frankenstein, Cyrano de Bergerac, How Sweet It Is!, and Angel in My Pocket.

1928–Singer-songwriter, Serge Gainsbourg, is born Lucien Ginsburg in Paris, France. He was a pianist, film composer, poet, painter, screenwriter, writer, actor, and director. He is regarded as one of the most important figures in French popular music. Through the course of his career, Gainsbourg wrote over 500 songs, which have been covered more than 1,000 times by a wide range of artists.

1930–Zewditu I of Ethiopia dies mysteriously at age 53. She was the first female head of an internationally recognized state in Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries, and the first Empress regnant of the Ethiopian Empire perhaps since the legendary Makeda, the Queen of Sheba. After Zewditu’s death, Haile Selassie is proclaimed Emperor of Ethiopia.

1931–A teenage girl strikes out Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig in an exhibition baseball game in Chattanooga, Tennessee.

1932–Charles Lindbergh turns over $50,000 as ransom for his kidnapped son. The youngster would not be recovered alive, nor would the case ever be solved.

1932–Rodeo performer, Bill Pickett, dies from a multi-day coma after being kicked in the head by a bucking bronco, at age 61. He invented the technique of bulldogging, the skill of grabbing cattle by the horns and wrestling them to the ground. Pickett soon became known for his tricks and stunts at local country fairs. With his four brothers, he established The Pickett Brothers Bronco Busters and Rough Riders Association.

1939–The 6th Golf Masters Championship: Ralph Guldahl wins, shooting a 279.

1939–Soul singer, Marvin Gaye, is born Marvin Pentz Gaye, Jr. in Washington, D.C. His hits include Hitch Hike, Pride and Joy, Can I Get a Witness, How Sweet It is (To Be Loved By You), I’ll Be Doggone, Ain’t That Peculiar,I Heard it Through the Grapevine, Too Busy Thinkg About My Baby, What’s Going On, Mercy Mercy Me, Let’s Get It On, and Sexual Healing.

1941–Radio host, Dr. Demento, is born Barret Eugene Hansen in Minneapolis, Minnesota. He was a broadcaster and record collector, specializing in novelty songs, comedy, and strange or unusual recordings dating from the early days of phonograph records to the present. His weekly show went into syndication in 1974, and from 1978 to 1992, was syndicated by the Westwood One Radio Network.

1941–Pianist-singer, Leon Russell, is born Claude Russell Bridges in Lawton, Oklahoma. He was one of the most respected singer-songwriter-musicians to come out the 1970s rock music scene. He is well known for his performances with Joe Cocker’s Mad Dogs and Englishman tour. His albums include Look Inside the Asylum Choir, Leon Russell, Leon Russell and the Shelter People, Asylum Choir II, Carney, and Hank Wilson’s Back. His hits include Roll Away the Stone, A Hard Rain’s a-Gonna Fall, Tight Rope, Rollin’ in My Sweet Baby’s Arms, This Masquerade, and Superstar.

1942–The Glenn Miller Orchestra records American Patrol for Victor Records. The jitterbug tune would become one of Miller’s most requested hits.

1943–Jazz musician, Larry Coryell, is born in Galveston, Texas. His music during the late 1960s and early 1970s combined the influences of rock, jazz, and eastern music. He was known as the "Godfather of Fusion."

1944–Dmitri Shostakovitch's Eighth Symphony premieres in New York.

1945–Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Brazil are established.

1945–Actress, Linda Hunt, is born Lydia Susanna Hunter in Morristown, New Jersey. Hunt is 4 feet 9 inches tall, and in high school she was diagnosed as having hypopituitary dwarfism. She is known for the role of Henrietta Lange on the TV series NCIS: Los Angeles. She appeared in the films The Year of Living Dangerously, Dune, The Bostonians, Silverado, She-Devil, Kindegarten Cop, Dragonfly, and Stranger Than Fiction.

1945–Baseball player and coach, Reggie Smith, is born Carl Reginald Smith in Los Angeles, California. He played in Major League Baseball as an outfielder and afterwards served as a coach and front office executive. He also played in the Nippon Professional Baseball league for two seasons at the end of his playing career. During a 17-year Major League career (1966-1982), Smith appeared in 1,987 games, hit 314 home runs, and batted .287. In his prime, he had one of the strongest throwing arms of any outfielder in the big leagues.

1946–Kurt Winter, of The Guess Who, is born in Canada. He left the group in June 1974, and was replaced by ex-James Gang member, Domenic Troiano.

1947–Country singer-songwriter, Emmylou Harris, is born in Birmingham, Alabama. She is a solo artist, bandleader, singer-songwriter, and a backing vocalist. She has worked with numerous leading artists including Gram Parsons, Bob Dylan, John Denver, Linda Ronstadt, Dolly Parton, Roy Orbison, The Band, Mark Knopfler, Delbert McClinton, Willie Nelson, Rodney Crowell, John Prine, Neil Young, Steve Earle, and Ryan Adams.

1947–Author and social critic, Camille (Anna) Paglia, is born in Endicott, New York. She is known for her critical views of many aspects of modern culture, including liberalism. She is the author of Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson and a collection of essays Sex, Art, and American Culture.

1949–Actor, Ron Palillo, is born Ronald Gabriel Paolillo in New Haven, Connecticut. He is best known for the role of Arnold Horshack on the TV sitcom Welcome Back, Kotter. He appeared in the films Skatetown, U.S.A., The Tempest, Friday the 13th Part VI: Jason Lives, and Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star.

1949–Actress, Pamela Reed, is born in Tacoma, Washington. She is known for the recurring role of Marlene Griggs-Knope on the sitcom Parks and Recreation. She appeared in the films Melvin and Howard, Eyewitness, Young Doctors in Love, The Right Stuff, The Best of Times, The Clan of the Cave Bear, Kindergarten Cop, Cadillac Man, Bob Roberts, and Why Do Fools Fall in Love.

1949–David Robinson, drummer for The Cars, is born in Malden, Massachusetts. Robinson came up with band’s name and is credited for designing the group’s album covers.

1951–Classical pianist, Simon Barere, dies of a cerebral hemorrhage while performing at Carnegie Hall in New York City, at age 54. Barere was especially known for his legendary speed and finger dexterity. In 1985, his complete HMV recordings, made at Abbey Road Studios between 1934 and 1936, were remastered by Bryan Crimp and issued by APR.

1952–Leon (Russell) Wilkeson, of Lynard Skynard, is born in Newport, Rhode Island.

1953–Actress, Debralee Scott, is born in Elizabeth, New Jersey. She is best known for her roles on the sitcoms Welcome Back Kotter, Angie, Mary Hartman Mary Hartman, and Forever Fernwood. She appeared in the films Dirty Harry, American Graffiti, The Crazy World of Julius Vrooder, Our Time, The Reincarnation of Peter Proud, Pandemonium, and Police Academy.

1954–Walt Disney announces plans to build a theme park called Disneyland.

1955–The opening of the Angus L. Macdonald Bridge takes place, linking Halifax and Dartmouth, Nova Scotia.

1956–The daytime soap operas, As the World Turns and The Edge of Night, debut on CBS-TV.

1959–Comedienne, Victoria (Lynn) Jackson, is born in Miami, Florida. She is best known as a cast member of Saturday Night Live. She appeared in the films Baby Boom, The Pick-up Artist, The Couch Trip, Casual Sex?, UHF, Family Business, and I Love You to Death.

1960–Elvis Presley is named the “Best-Selling Male Artist” at the first annual National Association of Recording Merchandisers Awards in Las Vegas, Nevada. “Best-Selling Female Artist” is Connie Francis.

1962–The first official panda crossing is opened outside London Waterloo station.

1963–Models, Shane and Sia Barbi, the Barbi Twins, are born in San Diego, California. As adults, their career has included fashion and pin-up modeling. They appeared on the cover of Playboy magazine in September 1991. Shane is married to actor, Ken Wahl.

1965–Rodney King, a black motorist beaten by Los Angeles police, is born Rodney Glen King III in Sacramento, California. A video of his beating by four police officers March 3, 1991, led to the 1992 Los Angeles Riots. By the time the police, the U.S. Army, Marines and National Guard restored order, the riots had caused 53 deaths, 2,383 injuries, more than 7,000 fires, damage to 3,100 businesses, and nearly $1 billion in financial losses. During the riots, King appeared on television and offered what would later be his famous plea, "Can’t we all get along?"

1966–The Soviet Union's Luna 10 becomes the first spacecraft to orbit the Moon.

1966–Author, C.S. Forester, dies in Fullerton, California, at age 66. He wrote the 12-book Horatio Hornblower series and The African Queen.

1967–An audience member throws a smoke bomb onto the stage at The Rolling Stones concert in Vienna, Austria, starting a riot that leads to the arrest of 154 fans.

1967–Steve Winwood leaves The Spencer Davis Group to form his own band, Traffic.

1969–Frank Sinatra records his classic anthem My Way. The song was written by Paul Anka.

1970–Qatar gains its independence from Great Britain.

1970–Phil Spector completes final editing and mixing for The Beatles’ Let It Be album, 16 months after the "Get Back" project had begun.

1971–The Gothic daytime soap opera, Dark Shadows, comes to and end after five years on the air.

1972–Actor, Burt Reynolds, appears nude in Cosmopolitan magazine. The issue becomes an instant collector’s item and an additional 700,000 copies are printed.

1972–Actor, Charlie Chaplin, returns to the United States for the first time since being labeled a communist during the Red Scare in the early 1950s.

1972–Baseball player, Gil Hodges, dies of a heart attack in West Palm Beach, Florida, at age 47. He was an American Major League Baseball (MLB) first baseman and manager, who played most of his 18-year career for the Brooklyn and Los Angeles Dodgers. He was inducted into the New York Mets Hall of Fame in 1982.

1972–Toshitsugu Takamatsu, Japanese Martial Arts Grandmaster, dies at age 85.

1973–The launch of the LexisNexis computerized legal research service takes place.

1974–The 46th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: The Sting; Best Actor: Jack Lemmon for Save the Tiger; Best Actress: Glenda Jackson for A Touch of Class; Best Director: George Roy Hill for The Sting; Best Foreign Film: Day for Night (France). The ceremonies are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles, California. The hosts are John Huston, Diana Ross, Burt Reynolds, and David Niven. While David Niven is introducing Elizabeth Taylor to present the award for Best Picture, a streaker named Robert Opel runs out from backstage. (“Streaking,” or running naked in public, was all the rage at the time).

1974–Chef, Alexandre Dumaine, dies at age 80. He was the proprietier of the Hôtel de la Côte-d'Or.

1974–French President, Georges Pompidou, dies of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia in Paris, France, at age 62. He was Prime Minister of France from 1962 to 1968 (the longest tenure in the position's history) and later President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death.

1975–The CN Tower is completed in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It reaches 1,815 feet in height, becoming the world's tallest free-standing structure.

1975–In the Vietnam War, thousands of civilian refugees flee from Quang Ngai Province in front of advancing North Vietnamese troops.

1975–Politician, Dong Biwu, dies in Beijing, People's Republic of China, at age 89. He was Chairman of the People's Republic of China. He was a communist political leader during the regime of Mao Zedong.

1978–Velcro is introduced to the American public.

1979–Israeli Prime Minister, Menachem Begin, visits Cairo, Egypt.

1979–A Soviet biowarfare laboratory at Sverdlovsk accidentally releases airborne anthrax spores, killing 66 people and an unknown number of livestock.

1979–Jesse (Royal) Carmichael, of Maroon 5, is born in Boulder, Colorado.

1980–President Jimmy Carter signs the Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax Act in an effort to help the U.S. economy rebound.

1982–Argentina invades the Falkland Islands.

1982–Fifty-six tornadoes touched down in central America, including 17 in the Red River region of Texas and Oklahoma. The tornadoes kill 30 people and injure 383 others.

1984–A New York State Supreme Court ruling directs Yoko Ono to pay producer Jack Douglas $2,524,809 (plus three years' interest) for work he did on the Double Fantasy LP. She is also ordered to pay Douglas a percentage of the earnings for his work the Milk and Honey LP.

1986–Four American passengers are killed by a bomb at a TWA counter in Athens, Greece.

1986–Alabama Governor, George Wallace, a former segregationist, announces that he will not seek a fifth four-year term and will retire from public life upon the end of his term in January 1987.

1986–Singer, Lee DeWyze, is born Leon James DeWyze, Jr. in Mount Prospect, Illinois. He was the winner of the 9th season of the TV competition show American Idol.

1987–IBM introduces the PS/2 and OS/2 computer operating systems.

1987–Jazz drummer, Buddy Rich, dies of a brain tumor in Los Angeles, California, at age 69. The self-taught prodigy started drumming when he was only 18 months old, and his incredible rhythmic sense influenced just about everyone who picked up a pair of drumsticks afterward.

1989–Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, arrives in Havana, Cuba, to meet with Fidel Castro in an attempt to mend strained relations.

1991–Rita Johnston becomes the first female Premier of a Canadian province, when she succeeds William Vander Zalm (who had resigned) as Premier of British Columbia.

1992–In New York, Mafia boss, John Gotti, is convicted of murder and racketeering. He is later sentenced to life in prison.

1992–Forty-two civilians were massacred in the town of Bijeljina, in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina.

1994–TV spokeswoman, Betty Furness, dies of cancer in New York, New York, at age 78. One of television's most recognizable series of commercials had Furness opening wide a refrigerator door, saying, "You can be sure... if it's Westinghouse." She was also a regular panelist on the panel show What's My Line? in 1951.

1997–Singer, Joni Mitchell, is reunited with Kilauren Gibb, the daughter she gave up for adoption 32 years earlier, when she was just starting her pop music career.

1997–Movie director, Tomoyuki Tanaka, dies from a stroke in Tokyo, Japan, at age 86. He directed the original film Godzilla.

1998–Rob Pilatus, of Milli Vanilli, dies of an accidental alcohol and prescription pill overdose in Friedrichsdorf, Germany, at age 32.

2002–Israeli forces surround the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, into which armed Palestinians had retreated and a siege ensues.

2003–Singer, Edwin Starr, dies of a heart attack at his home in Bramcote, Nottinghamshire, England, at age 61. He is best known for his #1 hit War.

2004–Islamist terrorists attempt to bomb the Spanish high-speed train AVE near Madrid, but the attack is thwarted.

2005–Heavy rainfall in the Northeast brings flooding to parts of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Severe flooding along the Delaware River forces the evacuation of 6,000 residents in New Jersey.

2005–Pope John Paul II dies of heart failure from profound hypotension and complete circulatory collapse from septic shock at Apostolic Palace, Vatican City, age 84. His final words to his aides were "Allow me to depart to the house of the Father."

2006–Over 60 tornadoes break out in America. Tennessee is the hardest hit with 29 people killed. Tornadoes, and hail as big as softballs, rip through eight Midwestern states, killing at least 27 people, and destroying hundreds of homes. Severe thunderstorms, many producing tornadoes, also strike parts of Iowa, Kentucky, Arkansas, Missouri, Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana.

2009–Saxophone and flute player, Bud Shank, dies of a pulmonary embolism at his home in Tucson, Arizona, at age 82. He rose to prominence in the early 1950s, playing lead alto and flute in Stan Kenton's Innovations in Modern Music Orchestra, and throughout the decade worked in various small jazz combos. He spent the 1960s as a first-call studio musician in Hollywood.

2012–A mass shooting at Oikos University at Oakland, California, leaves seven people dead and three others injured.

2013–Irish actor, Milo O’Shea, dies after a brief illness in New York, New York, at age 86. He appeared in the films Ulysses, Romeo & Juliet, Barbarella, Sacco e Vanzetti, Theatre of Blood, The Verdict, The Purple Rose of Cairo, The Playboys, and Murder in the Heartland.

2013–Super-centenarian, Maria Redaelli, dies in Novate Milanese, Milan, Italy at age 113 (and 364 days). She was just one day shy of her 114th birthday.

2014–A spree shooting occurs at the Fort Hood Army Base near the town of Killeen, Texas, with four people dead, including the gunman, and 16 others injured.

2015–Gunmen attack Garissa University College in Kenya, killing at least 148 people and wounding 79 others.

2015–American pastor and author, Robert H. Schuller, dies of esophageal cancer in Artesia, California, at age 88. He was principally known for the weekly Hour of Power TV program, which he founded in 1970, and hosted until 2010. He was also the founder of the Crystal Cathedral in Garden Grove, California.

2016–Tran Dai Quang is sworn in as the President of Vietnam.

2016–Austria plans to deploy soldiers on its border with Italy to stem an expected increase in migrants trying to get to northern Europe.

2017–India inaugurates the Chenani-Nashri Tunnel in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

2017–More than 20 people are murdered at a Sufi shrine near Sargodha, Pakistan.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Baldwin I of Jerusalem; Giacomo Casanova; a lead pencil; the first photograph of the Sun; Max Ernst; Jan Tschichold; Alec Guinness; Gloria Henry; Marvin Gaye; Leon Russell; Emmylou Harris; Ron Palillo; Rodney King; a Dark Shadows paperback; Georges Pompidou; the IBM PS/2 computer; Edwin Starr; and Milo O’Shea.

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