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1955–Elvis Presley's fourth single, a cover of Arthur Gunter's Baby, Let's Play House, backed with I'm Left, You're Right, She's Gone, is released. Later in the month, Presley (with Bill Black and Scotty Moore) heads off to New York to audition for the Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts TV show. Presley is rejected, while smooth crooner, Pat Boone, wins first place.



286–Emperor Diocletian elevates his general Maximian to co-emperor with the rank of Augustus and gives him control over the Western regions of the Roman Empire.

325–Crown Prince Jin Chengdi, age 4, succeeds his father, Jin Mingdi, as Emperor of the Eastern Jin dynasty.

457–Majorian is acclaimed Emperor by the Roman army.

527–Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew, Justinian I, as co-ruler and successor to the throne.

528–The daughter of Emperor Xiaoming of Northern Wei is made the "Emperor" as a male heir of the late emperor by Empress Dowager Hu, deposed and replaced by Yuan Zhao the next day. She was the first female monarch in the history of China, but not widely recognised.

996–Pope John XV dies in Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire.

1085–Emperor Shenzong of Song dies in China at age 36.

1204–Eleanor of Aquitaine dies in Poitiers, Bordeaux, France, at age 81.

1205–Amalric II of Jerusalem dies of of dysentery (or poisoning) in at Saint Jean d'Acre in Akko, Israel, at age 59.

1220–Emperor Go-Saga of Japan is born Kunihito-shinno in Japan.

1282–Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, is born in Munich, Bavaria.

1293–Robert Winchelsey leaves England for Rome, to be consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury.

1318–Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured from England by the Scots.

1340–Niels Ebbesen kills Gerhard III, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg, in his bedroom, ending the 1332-1340 interregnum in Denmark.

1441–Blanche I of Navarre, Queen of Navarre, dies in Santa María la Real de Nieva, at age 53.

1545–Potosi, Bolivia, is founded after the discovery of huge silver deposits in the area.

1548–Polish King, Sigismund I the Old, dies in Kraków, Poland, at age 81. He was a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece.

1572–In the Eighty Years' War, the Watergeuzen capture Brielle from the Spaniards, gaining the first foothold on land for what will become the Dutch Republic.

1625–A combined Spanish and Portuguese fleet of 52 ships commences the recapture of Bahia from the Dutch during the Dutch-Portuguese War.

1748–The ruins of Pompeii are discovered.

1778–Oliver Pollock, a businessman in New Orleans, Louisiana, creates the $ symbol.

1789–The U.S. House of Representatives has its first full meeting in New York City.

1793–The volcano Unsen erupts in Japan killing 53,000 people.

1815–Politician, Otto von Bismarck, is born Otto Eduard Leopold in Schönhausen, Prussia (present-day Saxony-Anhalt, Germany). He was the first Chancellor of the German Empire. He was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890.

1826–Samuel Morey patents the internal combustion engine.

1826–Author, Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, is born in Belley, Ain, France. A French lawyer and politician, he wrote The Physiology of Taste. Brillat-Savarin is often considered the father of the low-carbohydrate diet. He considered sugar and white flour to be the cause of obesity and he suggested instead protein-rich ingredients. He was perhaps the greatest food critic in history and is remembered for the quote, "Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are."

1833–The Convention of 1833, a political gathering of settlers in Mexican Texas to help draft a series of petitions to the Mexican government, begins in San Felipe de Austin.

1854–Charles Dickens' novel, Hard Times, begins serialisation in his magazine Household Words.

1865–During the American Civil War, Union troops, led by Philip Sheridan, defeat Confederate troops, led by George Pickett, cutting the Army of Northern Virginia's last supply line.

1867–The International Exhibition opens in Paris, France.

1867–Singapore becomes a British Crown Colony.

1871–The first stage of the Brill Tramway opens in the Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire, England.

1873–The White Star steamer RMS Atlantic sinks off Nova Scotia, Canada, killing 547 people in the worst marine disaster of the 19th century.

1873–Composer, Sergei Rachmaninoff, is born in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. When he was only 19, his Prelude in C Sharp Minor was a tremendous success and throughout his life, it was the only piece audiences always demanded that he play. His Symphony No. 1 was not well received when it was premiered in St. Petersburg, and he fell into despair, which was only cured by hypnosis. Rachmaninoff dedicated his Piano Concerto No. 2 to his hypnotist, and it became one of the best-loved piano concertos of the 20th century.

1874–Prince Karl of Bavaria is born Karl Maria Luitpold Prinz von Bayern in Villa Amsee, near Lindau, Bavaria.

1875–The Times of London becomes the first newspaper to print a daily weather chart.

1878–Sheriff William J. Brady dies in an ambush, at age 48. He was sheriff of Lincoln County during the Lincoln County Wars in New Mexico. Brady sided with the Murphy-Dolan faction, which put him up against Alexander McSween, Billy the Kid, and the Regulators. On this day, Regulators Jim French, Frank McNab, John Middleton, Fred Waite, Henry Newton Brown, and Billy the Kid ambush Sheriff Brady and four of his deputies on the main street of Lincoln. They fire on the five men from behind an adobe wall. It was for the murder of Brady that Billy the Kid was convicted by a territorial court in April 1881, and sentenced to death: a conviction that led to his famous escape from the Lincoln County jail and his subsequent killing by Sheriff Pat Garrett.

1883–Actor, Lon Chaney, is born Leonidas Frank Chaney in Colorado Springs, Colorado. He is regarded as one of the most versatile and powerful actors of early cinema, renowned for his characterizations of tortured, often grotesque and afflicted characters, and his groundbreaking artistry with makeup. He was called "The Man of a Thousand Faces." He appeared in the films Oliver Twist, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, The Monster, and The Phantom of the Opera. His son was actor, Lon Chaney, Jr.

1885–Actor, Wallace (Fitzgerald) Beery, is born in Kansas City, Missouri. Beery appeared in 250 movies during a 36-year career. In 1932, is contract with MGM stipulated that he be paid $1 more than any other contract player at the studio, making him the highest paid actor in the world. He appeared in the films The Last of the Mohicans, The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, Robin Hood, The Lost World, The Champ, Grand Hotel, and Treasure Island. He was the brother of actor Noah Beery, Sr. and uncle of actor Noah Beery, Jr. He was married to actress, Gloria Swanson.

1885–Clementine Churchill, Baroness Spencer-Churchill, is born Clementine Ogilvy Hozier in Mayfair, London, England. She was the wife of Sir Winston Churchill.

1887–The Mumbai Fire Brigade is established in Mumbai, Maharashtra.

1887–Dog breeder, H.S. Lloyd, is born Herbert Summers Lloyd in England. He is best known for being a breeder of show English Cocker Spaniels. his father, Richard Lloyd, was considered to be one of the founding fathers of the breed.

1889–The University of Northern Colorado is established, as the Colorado State Normal School.

1891–French painter, Paul Gauguin, leaves Marseille, France, for Tahiti.

1891–The Wrigley Company is founded in Chicago, Illinois. They produce Wrigley's Spearmint and Juicy Fruit gum.

1893–The rank of Chief Petty Officer in the U.S. Navy is established.

1893–The first dishwashing machine is an award-winning success at the Columbian Exposition. Josephine Garis Cochran’s hand operated, mechanical dishwashers were used in its kitchens. Her company eventually evolved into KitchenAid.

1895–The Indian Army is established.

1895–Blues singer, Alberta Hunter, is born in Memphis, Tennessee. She had a big career, singing with Fats Waller, Louis Armstrong, and other greats. Then, for 20 years, she dropped out of music and worked as a scrub nurse at a hospital on Roosevelt Island, until at the age of 80, she made a comeback. She continued singing until she was over 100 years old.

1908–The Territorial Force (renamed Territorial Army in 1920) is formed as a volunteer reserve component of the British Army.

1909–Pianist, Eddy Duchin, is born Edwin Frank Duchin in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Duchin had no formal music training, but he developed a style rooted in classical music that some saw as the forerunner of Liberace's ornate, gaudy approach. He had a pleasing stage presence and his favourite technique was to play his piano cross-handed, using only one finger on the lower hand. The film, The Eddy Duchin Story, starring Tyrone Power, tells his life story. His son is musician, Peter Duchin.

1915–Bluesman, Willie Dixon, is born William James Dixon in Vicksburg, Mississippi. He influenced a generation of musicians, including The Rolling Stones, and is known for the songs Back Door Man, Little Red Rooster, and Hoochie Coochie Man.

1917–Screenwriter and producer, Sydney (Cecil) Newman, is born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. He played a pioneering role in British television drama from the late 1950s to the late 1960s. He was co-creator of Doctor Who.

1917–Scott Joplin, Ragtime's greatest composer, dies of syphilis in New York at age 48. Joplin’s music was revived in the early 1970s, when it was used exclusively by Marvin Hamlish in the movie The Sting.

1918–The Royal Air Force is created by the merger of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service.

1918–Henry Miller's Theater opens at 124 W. 43rd Street, New York City.

1920–The Stanley Cup: The Ottawa Senators beat the Seattle Seahawks, 3 games to 2.

1922–Six Irish Catholic civilians are shot and beaten to death by a gang of policemen in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

1922–Charles I of Austria dies of respiratory failure in Madeira, Portuguese Republic, at age 34. He was the last ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire: he was the last Emperor of Austria, the last King of Hungary, and the last monarch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.

1922–Psychologist and author, Hermann Rorschach, dies of peritonitis resulting from a ruptured appendix in Herisau, Switzerland, at age 37. He was a Freudian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, best known for developing a projective test known as the “Rorschach inkblot test.”

1924–The Royal Canadian Air Force is formed.

1924–Adolf Hitler is sentenced to five years in jail for his participation in the “Beer Hall Putsch.” He spends only nine months in jail, and spends the time writing his book Mein Kampf.

1927–The automatic record changer is introduced by His Master's Voice, later known as RCA Victor.

1929–Louie Marx introduces the yo-yo.

1929–Actress, Jane Powell, is born Suzanne Lorraine Burce in Portland, Oregon. She appeared in the films A Date with Judy, Royal Wedding, Three Sailors and a Girl, Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, Hit the Deck, and The Girl Most Likely. She was married to former child star, Dickie Moore.

1930–The movie, Blue Angel, starring a then-unknown Marlene Dietrich, premieres in America.

1930–Actress, Grace Lee Whitney, is born Mary Ann Chase in Ann Arbor, Michigan. She is best known for the role of Yeoman Janice Rand on the original Star Trek TV series and movie franchise. She was also seen in many other TV shows, including Zane Grey Theater, The Real McCoys, Gunsmoke, The Rifleman, 77 Sunset Strip, The Outer Limits, Batman, and The Big Valley. She appeared in the films House of Wax, Women’s Prison, Some Like It Hot, Pocketful of Miracles, A Public Affair, and Irma la Douce.

1931–An earthquake devastates Managua, Nicaragua, killing 2,000 people.

1932–Ford introduces the high-performance Ford V-8, the first Ford with an 8-cylinder engine.

1932–Actor, (Alexander) Gordon Jump, is born in Dayton, Ohio. He is best known for the roles of radio station manager Arthur "Big Guy" Carlson in the TV series WKRP in Cincinnati, and Chief of Police Tinkler in the sitcom Soap. He appeared in the films Conquest of the Planet of the Apes, The Fury, Making the Grade, Moving, and Honeymoon Academy.

1932–Actress, Debbie Reynolds, is born Mary Frances Reynolds in El Paso, Texas. She appeared in the films Three Little Words, Singin’ in the Rain, I Love Melvin, The Affairs of Dobie Gillis, Susan Slept Here, The Tender Trap, The Catered Affair, Bundle of Joy, Tammy and the Bachelor, The Mating Game, Say One for Me, The Rat Race, How the West Was Won, My Six Loves, The Unsinkable Molly Brown, Goodbye Charlie, and The Singing Nun. She was married to singer, Eddie Fisher, and their daughter is actress Carrie Fisher.

1933–Heinrich Himmler becomes the Police Commander of Germany.

1933–The recently elected Nazis, under Julius Streicher, organize a one-day boycott of all Jewish-owned businesses in Germany, ushering in a series of anti-Semitic acts.

1934–Outlaws, Bonnie and Clyde, kill two young highway patrolmen near Grapevine, Texas.

1935–The first radio tube made of metal is announced in Schenectady, New York.

1935–India's central banking institution, The Reserve Bank of India, is established.

1936–Odisha, formerly known as Kalinga or Utkal, becomes a state in India.

1936–Radio host, Don Steele, is born Donald Steele Revert in Hollywood, California. He was one of the most popular disc jockeys in America, from the middle of the 1960s until his retirement in 1997. He was known as "The Real Don Steele," a name given to him by his program director, Steve Brown, in Omaha, Nebraska.

1937–Aden becomes a British Crown Colony.

1937–The Royal New Zealand Air Force is formed as an independent Air Force.

1937–Jaén, Spain, is bombed by German fascist forces, supporting Francoist Nationalists, in the Spanish Civil War.

1938–The Baseball Hall of Fame opens in Cooperstown, New York.

1938–Joe Louis knocks out Harry Thomas in round 5 for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1938–Character actor, John Quade, is born John William Saunders III in Kansas City, Kansas. He appeared in the films Bad Company, High Plains Drifter, Papillon, The Sting, The Outlaw Josey Wales, Every Which Way But Loose, and La Bamba.

1939–Generalsimo Francisco Franco of the Spanish State announces the end of the Spanish Civil War.

1939–Singer, Rudy Isley, of The Isley Brothers, is born Rudolph Bernard Isley in Cincinnati, Ohio. The group had hits with Shout and Twist and Shout.

1939–Actress, Ali MacGraw, is born Elizabeth Alice MacGraw in Pound Ridge, New York. In 1972, MacGraw was voted the top female box office star in the world. She appeared in the films Goodbye, Columbus, Love Story, The Getaway, Convoy, Players, and Just Tell Me What You Want. She was married to film producer, Robert Evans, and actor, Steve McQueen.

1941–The U.S. Navy takes over Treasure Island in the San Francisco Bay.

1941–A military coup in Iraq overthrows the regime of ‘Abd al-Ilah and installs Rashid Ali al-Gaylani as Prime Minister.

1941–Between 200 and 2,000 Romanian civilians are killed by Soviet Border Troops.

1941–The Nazis deny Jews access to cafes.

1942–Alan Blakley, of The Tremeloes, is born in Bromley, Kent, England. The group’s hits include I Want Candy, Here Comes My Baby, Silence is Golden, and Even the Bad Times Are Good. The Tremeloes would have the dubious distinction of being signed by Decca Records instead of The Beatles.

1942–Philip Margo, of The Tokens, is born in Brooklyn, New York. The vocal group is best known for the hit The Lion Sleeps Tonight, which rose to #1 on the Billboard “Hot 100,” remaining there for three weeks in 1961.

1943–Actress, Carol White, is born Carole Joan White in Hammersmith, London, England. During the late 1960s, White was considered one of the most promising actresses in British cinema. She appeared in the films Kind Hearts and Coronets, Carry On Teacher, Never Let Go, Up the Junction, Cathy Come Home, I'll Never Forget What's'isname, Poor Cow, The Fixer, and Daddy's Gone A-Hunting.

1944–Navigation errors lead to an accidental American bombing of the city of Schaffhausen, Switzerland.

1945–Over 1,200 U.S. Navy ships and U.S. Army troops begin the invasion of Okinawa, Japan, in the last major campaign of World War II.

1945–John Barbata, drummer for The Turtles, is born in Passaic, New Jersey. Already an established session drummer when he joined The Turtles, Barbata was one of the pioneering drummers who converted pop music rhythms from the down-beat rhythms of the 1950s to the off-beat rhythms that have dominated ever since.

1946–Up to 400,000 U.S. mine workers go on strike.

1946–The Malayan Union is formed.

1946–Weight Watchers is founded.

1946–An 8.6 earthquake near the Aleutian Islands creates a tsunami that strikes the Hawaiian Islands killing 159 people, mostly in Hilo.

1946–Astronaut, William Frederick Fisher, is born in Dallas, Texas. He was selected as a NASA Astronaut in 1980. Fisher was a mission specialist on STS-51-I, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on August 27, 1985. STS-51-I was acknowledged as the most successful Space Shuttle mission yet flown. In 1977, he was married to a fellow astronaut, Anna Lee Fisher, of St. Albans, New York.

1946–Ronnie Lane, bass player for Small Faces, is born Ronald Frederick Lane in Plaistow, England. Subsequently, Lane collaborated with other musicians, leading his own bands and pursuing a solo career, while remaining close to his former bandmates.

1946–Actor, Noah Beery, dies of a heart attack in Beverly Hills, California, at age 62. He was active in films from 1913 to 1945. He appeared in the films The Sea Wolf, The Thundering Herd, Lord Jim, Beau Geste, The Rough Riders, The Four Feathers, She Done Him Wrong, and Adventures of Red Ryder.

1947–George II of Greece dies of arteriosclerosis in Athens, Greece, at age 56. He was discovered unconscious in his room at the Royal Palace. Paul of Greece becomes King, on the death of his childless, elder brother.

1947–The only mutiny in the history of the Royal New Zealand Navy begins.

1948–Communist-Soviet forces respond to the introduction of the Deutsche Mark by attempting to force the Western powers to withdraw from Berlin.

1948–The Faroe Islands gain autonomy from Denmark.

1948–Beat writer, Neal Cassady, marries Carolyn Robinson. Carolyn's ring, plate silver set with rhinestones, is from Woolworth's. Judge Clayton Golden performs the $10.00 ceremony, and the newlyweds toast the occasion with two beers in a grimy diner, where the bride picks up the tab.

1948–Reggae singer, Jimmy Cliff, is born James Chambers in Somerton District, St. James, Jamaica. He is best known for the film and LP The Harder They Come, which helped popularize reggae across the world. His hits include Wonderful World, Beautiful People, Many Rivers to Cross, You Can Get It If You Really Want, and The Harder They Come.

1948–Simon Crowe, drummer for The Boomtown Rats, is born in Dublin, Ireland. The Boomtown Rats had 18 hit singles in England, including Rat Trap and I Don't Like Mondays.

1949–The Government of Canada repeals Japanese Canadian internment after seven years.

1949–The 26 counties of the Irish Free State become the Republic of Ireland.

1949–In the Chinese Civil War, the Chinese Communist Party holds unsuccessful peace talks with the Nationalist Party in Beijing, after three years of fighting.

1949–Musician, Gil Scott-Heron, is born Gilbert Scott-Heron in Chicago, Illinois. He was a soul-jazz poet and author, known primarily for his work as a spoken-word performer in the 1970s and 1980s. His music, most notably on Pieces of a Man and Winter in America in the early 1970s, influenced and helped engender later African-American music genres, such as hip hop and neo soul.

1952–The Big Bang Theory is proposed in The Physical Review by Alpher, Bethe, and Gamow.

1952–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1952–Actress, Annette O'Toole, is born Annette Toole in Houston, Texas. She was cast in numerous TV shows, including Gunsmoke, The Partridge Family, Police Woman, and Nash Bridges. She appeared in the films One on One, King of the Gypsies, Foolin’ Around, Cat People, 48 Hrs., Superman III, Cross My Heart, and Love at Large. She was married to actor, Michael McKean.

1953–Film director and cinematographer, Barry Sonnenfeld, is born in New York, New York. His work includes Blood Simple, Throw Momma From the Train, Raising Arizona, Big, When Harry Met Sally..., Misery, The Addams Family, Get Shorty, Men in Black, and Wild Wild West.

1954–President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorizes the creation of the U.S. Air Force Academy north of Colorado Springs, Colorado.

1954–Jeff Porcaro, drummer for Toto, is born Jeffrey Thomas Porcaro in Hartford, Connecticut. He is one of the most recorded session musicians in history, working on hundreds of albums and in thousands of sessions.

1955–The EOKA rebellion against the British Empire begins in Cyprus, with the goal of obtaining the desired unification with Greece.

1955–George Martin becomes head of A&R for the Parlophone record label in the U.K.

1955–Elvis Presley's fourth single, a cover of Arthur Gunter's Baby, Let's Play House, backed with I'm Left, You're Right, She's Gone, is released. Later in the month, Presley (with Bill Black and Scotty Moore) heads off to New York to audition for the Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts TV show. Presley is rejected, while smooth crooner, Pat Boone, wins first place.

1955–Domestic terrorist, Terry (Lynn) Nichols, is born in Lapeer, Michigan. He is a convicted accomplice in the Oklahoma City bombing. He met his future conspirator, Timothy McVeigh, during a brief stint in the U.S. Army, which ended in 1989, when he requested a hardship discharge after less than one year of service. In 1994 and 1995, he conspired with McVeigh in the planning and preparation of the truck bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on April 19, 1995. The bombing claimed the lives of 168 people. After a federal trial in 1997, Nichols was convicted of conspiracy to use a weapon of mass destruction and eight counts of involuntary manslaughter, for killing federal law enforcement personnel. He was sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole.

1956–Little Willie John records the original version of Fever for King Records. The song would eventually become a big hit for Peggy Lee.

1956–Elvis Presley does a screen test and signs a three-picture deal with Paramount Studios.

1957–The BBC broadcasts the “spaghetti-tree hoax” on its current affairs program Panorama. It was a three-minute April Fool’s Day hoax report, showing a family in southern Switzerland harvesting spaghetti from the family "spaghetti tree." At the time spaghetti was relatively little-known in Britain, and a number of viewers contacted the BBC for advice on growing their own spaghetti trees.

1957–Cadence Records releases The Everly Brothers' Bye Bye Love, a song rejected by 30 labels before Cadence picked it up. It will go to #2 on the Pop chart and #1 on the Country & Western chart.

1959–Iakovos is enthroned as Greek Orthodox Archbishop of America.

1960–France conducts a nuclear test at Reggane Proving Grounds, Algeria.

1960–The TIROS-1 satellite transmits the first television picture from space.

1960–Dr. Martens releases its first boots, the model 1460.

1961–The Beatles perform at the Top Ten Club, Reeperbahn, Hamburg, West Germany. This is the first of 92 straight nights playing at this club, during which The Beatles will log a staggering 503 hours on stage. They play seven hours per night on weekdays, and eight hours on weekends (with a 15-minute break each hour). The grueling schedule will hone their musical skills until, by the time they return to Liverpool, they will be the best band in the region.

1961–Singer, Susan (Magdalane) Boyle, is born in Blackburn, West Lothian, Scotland. She came to international attention when she appeared as a contestant on the TV show Britain's Got Talent on April 11, 2009, singing I Dreamed a Dream from Les Misérables. Her first album was released in November 2009, and debuted as the #1 best-selling album on charts around the globe.

1963–Newspapers in New York City resume publishing after a 114-day strike.

1964–John Lennon meets his father, Freddie Lennon, for the first time in 17 years.

1965–Businesswoman, Helena Rubinstein, dies in New York, New York, at age 92. Some of her estate, including African and fine art, Lucite furniture, and overwrought Victorian furniture upholstered in purple, was auctioned in 1966, at the Park-Bernet Galleries in New York. In 1973, Helena Rubinstein, Inc. was sold to Colgate Palmolive, and is presently owned by L'Oréal.

1967–The U.S. Department of Transportation begins operation.

1967–Under pressure to complete their album, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, The Beatles record, in one night, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (Reprise).

1969–The Beach Boys announce they are suing Capitol Records, for $2,041,446.64 in royalties and producer's fees for Brian Wilson. The band also announces it's starting its own label, Brothers Records, which will be distributed by Warner/Reprise.

1969–The three-day Atlantic City Pop Festival opens. Among the performers: Jefferson Airplane, Creedence Clearwater Revival, Little Richard, and Joe Cocker.

1970–President Richard Nixon signs the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act into law, requiring the Surgeon General's warnings on tobacco products and banning cigarette advertising on television and radio in the United States, starting on January 1, 1971.

1970–As an April Fool’s Day joke, John Lennon and Yoko Ono put out a press release announcing that they will be having dual sex-change operations.

1971–The Pakistan Army massacres over 1,000 people in Keraniganj Upazila, Bangladesh.

1971–The United Kingdom lifts all restrictions on gold ownership.

1973–Project Tiger, a tiger conservation project, is launched at the Jim Corbett National Park in India.

1973–On April Fool's Day, John Lennon and Yoko Ono hold a press conference to announce the creation of their conceptual community, Nutopia. John says that the national flag of Nutopia will be a toilet tissue, which he and Yoko proudly wave. This is an effort to show that they are against the U.S. Immigration policies that are trying to keep the former Beatle out of America.

1973–Japan allows its citizens to own gold.

1973–Entrepreneur, Joe Francis, is born Joseph R. Francis in Atlanta, Georgia. He founded the Girls Gone Wild entertainment brand. The videos were of college age women who willingly exposed their bodies or acted wildly on camera. In its first two years, Girls Gone Wild made more than $20 million. By 2002, Francis had produced 83 different Girls Gone Wild titles and was airing 30-minute infomercials on all major U.S. networks.

1973–Rachel (Anne) Maddow, TV personality and political commentator, is born in Castro Valley, California. She hosts a nightly television show, The Rachel Maddow Show, on MSNBC. Her syndicated talk radio program of the same name aired on Air America Radio.

1974–The Ayatollah Khomeini calls for an Islamic Republic in Iran.

1974–The metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England come into being.

1974–Paul and Linda McCartney return for the second day to John Lennon’s rented beach house in Malibu, California. Keith Moon’s friend and assistant, Dougal Butler, snaps a picture of John and Paul together poolside. This polaroid snapshot turns out to be the last photo ever taken of Lennon and McCartney together.

1975–As an April Fool's Day joke, pranksters break into London's Big Ben and switch its gears so that it runs counter-clockwise.

1976–The computer company, Apple Inc. is formed by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne.

1976–Conrail takes over operations from six bankrupt railroads in the Northeastern U.S.

1976–The Jovian-Plutonian gravitational effect, soon revealed as an April Fools' Day hoax, is first reported by British astronomer, Patrick Moore, on BBC Radio 2. Moore stated to radio listeners that an astronomical event would take place at 9:47 a.m. that day, a conjunction of Jupiter and Pluto, which was expected to have an effect observable everywhere. As Pluto passed behind Jupiter, it would briefly cause a powerful combination of the two planets' gravitation, which would noticeably decrease gravity on Earth. If listeners were to jump into the air at that exact moment, they would find they felt a floating sensation. The BBC began to receive hundreds of telephone calls from people reporting they had observed the decrease in gravity: one woman even stated that she and 11 friends had been sitting and were "wafted from their chairs and orbited gently around the room." The story was quickly revealed as a hoax.

1976–German painter, Max Ernst, dies at age 84. He was founder of the Dada group, and was also involved in the Surrealist movement. He was buried at Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, France.

1976–Alfred "Freddie" Lennon, John Lennon’s father, dies of stomach cancer at Brighton General Hospital in Brighton, England, at age 63. John's relationship with his father had been strained, but during the final weeks of Freddie’s life, John did what he could to finally make peace. Late in his life, Alf wrote a manuscript detailing his life story, which he bequeathed to John. It was his attempt to fill in the lost years when he had not been in contact with his son.

1978–The Philippine College of Commerce, through a presidential decree, becomes the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.

1979–Iran becomes an Islamic republic by a 99% vote, officially overthrowing the Shah.

1979–The Nickelodeon channel begins broadcasting on cable TV.

1980–France conducts a nuclear test.

1980–Model and actress, Bijou (Lilly) Phillips, is born in Greenwich, Connecticut. She appeared in the films Black and White, Almost Famous, Bully, The Door in the Floor, Venom, and Choke. She is the daughter of John Phillips of The Mamas and The Papas; her mother was model-actress, Geneviève Waite. Actress, Mackenzie Phillips, and singer, Chyna Phillips, are her half-sisters.

1981–Daylight saving time is introduced in the USSR.

1983–Anti-nuke demonstrators in England link arms in a 14-mile human chain.

1984–Soul singer, Marvin Gaye, is shot to death by his father, Marvin Gaye, Sr., in Los Angeles, California, at age 44. He and his father were involved in a physical altercation, after Gaye intervened in an argument between his parents. His hits include Hitch Hike, Pride and Joy, Can I Get a Witness, How Sweet It is (To Be Loved By You), I’ll Be Doggone, Ain’t That Peculiar,I Heard it Through the Grapevine, Too Busy Thinkg About My Baby, What’s Going On, Mercy Mercy Me, Let’s Get It On, and Sexual Healing.

1986–The Communist Party of Nepal cadres attack a number of police stations in Kathmandu, Nepal, seeking to incite a popular rebellion.

1986–Hillary (Dawn) Scott, of Lady Antebellum, is born in Nashville, Tennessee.

1987–A tornado touches down briefly during a snow squall on the south shore of White Fish Bay, Wiconsin. The roof is blown off of a mobile home and insulation is sucked from its walls.

1989–Margaret Thatcher's new local government tax, the Community Charge (commonly known as the "poll tax"), is introduced in Scotland.

1990–A law is passed in Salem, Oregon, making it illegal to be within two feet of nude dancers.

1990–Sportscaster, Brent Mussburger, is fired by CBS-TV.

1990–The Ha! comedy channel begins broadcasting on cable TV.

1991–Dancer and choreographer, Martha Graham, dies of pneumonia in New York, New York, at age 96. Her ashes were spread over the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in northern New Mexico. Graham danced and choreographed for over 70 years. Her style, the Graham technique, fundamentally reshaped American dance and is still taught worldwide.

1994–Editor, Ray Geiger, dies at age 83. He was the editor of the Farmers' Almanac from 1934-1993, and editor of American Farm & Home Almanac from 1964-1990.

1997–Comet Hale–Bopp is seen passing at perihelion.

1999–Nunavut is established as a Canadian territory, carved out of the eastern part of the Northwest Territories.

1999–The first minimum wage goes into effect in Great Britain. It is £3.60 an hour for adults and £3.00 an hour for those under age 22.

2001–The former President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Slobodan Miloevi, surrenders to police special forces, to be tried on charges of war crimes.

2001–The Netherlands becomes the first country to allow same-sex marriage.

2001–An EP-3E U.S. Navy surveillance aircraft collides with a Chinese People's Liberation Army Shenyang J-8 fighter jet. The Navy crew makes an emergency landing in Hainan, China, and is detained.

2002–The Netherlands becomes the first country to legalize euthanasia.

2004–Google introduces Gmail.

2004–Korea Train Express is opened to traffic from Seoul to Dongdaegu.

2004–Paul Atkinson, of The Zombies, dies of liver and kidney disease in Santa Monica, California, at age 58. The group had hits in the 1960s with She’s Not There, Tell Her No, and Time of the Season.

2004–Actress, Carrie Snodgress, dies of heart and liver failure in Los Angeles, California, at age 58. She had been hospitalized, awaiting a liver transplant. She appeared in the films Easy Rider, Diary of a Mad Housewife, Rabbit Run, The Fury, The Attic, A Night in Heaven, Pale Rider, Murphy’s Law, The Ballad of Little Jo, 8 Seconds, Blue Sky, and White Man’s Burden.

2006–The Serious Organised Crime Agency, dubbed the “British FBI,” is extablished in the U.K.

2009–Croatia and Albania join NATO.

2010–Actor, John Forsythe, dies of pneumonia in Santa Ynez, California, at age 92. He starred in three television series: Bachelor Father, Charlie's Angels, and Dynasty. He appeared in the films Escape from Fort Bravo, The Trouble with Harry, Kitten with a Whip, Madame X, In Cold Blood, Topaz, The Happy Ending, ...And Justice for All, and Scrooged.

2011–After protests against the burning of the Quran turn violent, a mob attacks a United Nations compound in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan, killing 13 people, including eight foreign workers.

2012–Mexican President, Miguel de la Madrid, dies of emphysema in Mexico City, Mexico, at age 77.

2015–Due to four years of serious drought in California, Governor Jerry Brown issues an executive order requiring the State Water Resources Control Board to reduce water usage by 25% across the state. He also orders the removal of 50 million square feet of lawns in the state to be replaced with “drought-tolerant” landscapes.

2015–President Obama issues an executive order authorizing targeted sanctions against individuals or entities whose actions in cyberspace result in significant threats to the national security, foreign policy, or economic health and financial stability of the United States.

2015–Cynthia Lennon dies of cancer at her home in Mallorca, Spain, at age 75. She was married to John Lennon from 1962-1968, and they had a son, Julian Lennon, who was born in 1963.

2015–Super-centenarian, Misao Okawa, dies in Higashisumiyoshi-ku, Osaka, Japan, at age 117 (and 27 days). Japan has the most centenarians in the world, with more than 58,000, according to the government. About 87% of them are women.

2017–After 27 years, Crayola says the crayon color, “dandelion,” is being replaced, making way for another shade in the blue family. This is not the first time the company has retired colors. In 1990, eight shades (maize, lemon yellow, blue gray, raw umber, green blue, orange red, orange yellow, and violet blue) were retired and eight new ones (including “dandelion,”) were introduced. In 2003, four other colors were taken out and four new ones introduced.

2017–Ayad al-Jumaili, believed to be ISIL's second-in-command, is killed by an Iraqi airstrike near Al Qaim, Anbar province, Iraq.

2017–An explosion occurs at a carnival in Villepinte, Seine-Saint-Denis, France, injuring at least 18 people.

2017–A landslide sends mud and debris crashing onto houses, killing 112 people and injuring at least 120 others, in Colombia's southwestern border province of Putumayo.

2017–Bluesman, Lonnie Brooks, dies at age 83. In 1969, he recorded his first album, Broke an’ Hungry, for Capitol Records. Later, Brooks recorded exclusively for Alligator, releasing seven albums in his own name and contributing to shared recordings and compilation appearances. His style, sometimes described as "voodoo blues," included elements of Chicago blues, Louisiana blues, swamp pop, and rhythm & blues.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Emperor Shenzong of Song; the ruins of Pompeii; The International Exhibition in Paris, France; Lon Chaney; a Wrigley's Juicy Fruit gum ad; Eddy Duchin, the automatic record changer; a Ford V-8; Bonnie and Clyde; The Baseball Hall of Fame; Ali MacGraw; Carol White; Noah Beery; Jimmy Cliff; the "Big Bang"; Elvis Presley in 1955; The Beatles at the Top Ten Club in Hamburg, Germany; the Brother Records label; John Lennon and Yoko Ono's Nutopia press conference; Stephen Wozniak and Steven Jobs; Bijou Phillips; Martha Graham, Carrie Snodgress; and Cynthia Lennon.

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